Sir Halford Mackinder

Ella Gavin, 2nd Hour, 3-15-16

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Sir Halford Mackinder (1861-1947)

Sir Halford Mackinder was born in Lincolnshire, England in 1861. Mackinder studied natural sciences and biology at Oxford. In 1904 he published the article, The Geographical Pivot of History. He was concerned with the power relationships at a time where Britain had a global empire. A quote from Democratic Ideals and Reality: " Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland, Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island, Who rules the World Island commands the World." This quote is the core idea of the Heartland theory.

"Mackinder's Heartland theory strikes back against traditional rules of power and relations!"

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Heartland Theory

Mackinder published his book Democratic Ideals and Reality in 1919. He believed that a land based power, not a sea power, would come to rule the world. This became known as the Heartland theory. The pivot area (later changed to be called the Heartland) included Eastern Europe to Eastern Siberia. According to Mackinder, if this territory became influential in Europe, a great empire would be formed. The Heartland theory can still be seen in modern day Kazakhstan and its relations with Russia, adding to Mackinder's lasting legacy.