The Whole of World History

Emalina Cihak World History Study Final Guide


Scientific Revolution: Many inventors contributed to the scientific revolution. People like Isaac Newton who was a physicist and mathematician who introduced the Laws of Motion and the concept of Universal Gravity. Francis Brown who is also known as the Father of Empiricism, and established the scientific method. Johannes Kepler first wrote of the Laws of Planetary Motion and invented the first refracting telescope. Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to make the heliocentric model, placing the sun at the center of the solar system instead of the earth. James Watt who contributed to the Newcome steam engine, Richard Arkwright who invented the spinning frame and helped start the mass production of yarn, Eli Whitney who invented the cotton gin which boosted the economy in the United States, and Henry Bessemer who was a steel making engineer and introduced the Bessemer process which helped the production and usage of steel.

French Revolution: A few caused that led to the French Revolution were the Enlightenment, the anger of th Third Estate, the American Revolution sparking ideas of change into the French people, and bad treatment by the royal family, King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.

There were three estates in France at the time of the French Revolution. The first was clergy like bishops and priests who sided with nobility who were the second estate. The King and Queen were in this estate, and was one of the main causes of tension. The third was the commonwealth and peasants of France who wanted change in the French government.

Some key individuals of the French Revolution are King Louis XVI who treated his people poorly, his wife Marie Antoinette who used up the money in the French economy, and Robspierre who voiced the people's opinions and started the first few uprisings. Some historical relivant battles are The Battle of Bastille, where the people attacked a prisons called Bastille and tore it down. The Declaration of the Rights of Man, the War with Austria, and the Reign of Terror.

Russia: Two powerful dictators tried to take over Russia but both failed. Napoleon failed because he fighting a war on two fronts and the size of Russia made it harder to conquer. Hitter failed in invading Russia because it was a heavy price on the Germans economic wise, the German armies weren't prepared for winter, much like Napolean's failure Russia was too big, and the Soivets launched their own counter-attacks.

Latin American Revolutions: Some important people of the Latin American revolutions are Toussaint L'Ouverture who was the leader of the Haitian Revolution and inspire the rest of Latin America, Simon Bolivar who was a Venezuelan military leader, and Jose de San Martin who was an Argentine general and helped many smaller nations gain their independence.

Industrial Revolution: The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain because they had such a large empire, and population, they had a large textile and iron industry. During the Industrial revolution working conditions and living changed for the worse, urbanization boomed, and life expectancy dropped.

World at War

Imperialism: Europeans were scrambling for Africa. Everyone wanted a piece of the rich resourced land filled with gold, tea, and cocoa. It also allowed for larger trade.

Pre-World War 1: Joseph Stalin had introduced his Five Year Plan to Russia. It pursued industrialization with collective farming, and extensive military and factory output. As Stalin's reign continued the economy got stronger. As time went in a political party known as tolatarianism emerged. Tolatarianism is the idea that the government has absolute control and a centralized governemnt. The Nazi, Facists, and Communist parties branched out from totalitarianism. However the three are different because each leader had different ideas as to want they wanted to do with their power.

World War 1: World War 1 is mostly about who were friends were. The United States entered the war because our European allies were being attacked and we had to help them. A lot of new military type weapons were introduced during WW1. Weapons like tanks, poison gas, aircraft carries, unmanned aircrafts, and U-boats or war submarines.

Post-World War 1: Once WW1 ended the Treaty of Versailles took action placing all the blame of Germany. The United States feel into the Great Depressions and our stock market crashed. Hitler rose to power in Germany and ideas of another war began to brew.

Pre-World War 2: European nations and the League of Nations using the method of appeasment to prevent another war with Germany. It doesn't last too long, and world war 2 begins.

World War 2: World War Two consisted of the spread of communism, genocide, and heavy bombing. Germany used a strategy called Blitzkreig which was surprising their enemy and throwing down everything they have. The Battle of Britain was an air battle over Britain with Germany and Britain air planes. The Battle of Midway marks the middle of the war and was a naval battle between Japan and the U.S. The United States used a strategy called Island Hopping in the Pacific to contain communism. Truman dropped the atomic bomb on Japan and not long after the war ended.

Cold War: The Cold War was mainly between the United States and the Soviet Union. We used CIA and KGB agents to spy, high altitude planes, and satellites. Russia built the Berlin Wall around east Berlin to keep them in after failure to capture West Berlin earlier in the war. The United States used a method called containment to try to contain the spread of communism. The Korean War was when North Korea invaded South Korea with the help of the Soviet Union. The Vietnam war was similar in which the North invaded the South with the help of the Soviet Union. In Cuba Fidel Castro liberated Cuba and became a dictator. The Bay of Pigs was an attempted assassination of Castro by anti-communist Cubans, and the Cuban Missle Crisis was when the U.S. and the USSR where we had our missiles pointed at each other.

Middle East