Age of Exploration

Invention of Telescope

In 1609, the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei combined a tube with 2 lenses, which is considered to be first astronomical telescope. Total magnification of Galileo’s telescope was 30x. He used it to observe the moon, which showed that Earth is moving around the sun. This new view of the universe that created was called heliocentric theory, which considered Sun the center of the universe. Many scientists made observations and tried to support this theory. He also observed the four moons of Jupiter, which were moving around the planet and not around the Earth. Using his telescope Galileo discovered light glowing across the sky, which was later identified as a part of the Milky Way galaxy. Other than astronomy, sea captains used telescopes to identify ships from long distances. To many historians, the invention of telescope is considered one of the biggest inventions in the age of exploration.

Works Cited

Dunbar, Brian. "Telescope History." NASA. NASA, 23 Dec. 2003. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.
"Telescopes from the Ground Up." Telescopes from the Ground Up. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.
"Pix For Old Telescope." Pix For Old Telescope. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

Slavery In Africa

Every day in Africa thousands of people are being stolen or forced out of Africa to be sold in to slavery. The companies are selling them to wealthy plantation owners in the Caribbean or the Americas. Some companies are selling them to wealthy Europeans to become household servants. The Europeans see it as a way of boasting to their guests, showing off their new, exotic, purchase. The poor people that are being enslaved are often sold by their own African brothers for goods like textiles, metalwork, rum, tobacco, and weapons. It is horrific that their own rulers and leaders see these people as nothing more than profit, not as a living, breathing, human being. Slavery has been around since ancient times, but has never been as profitable or as popular as it is now. This immoral concept has turned into a business, and unfortunately, business is good.

Works Cited
Pictures of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, Abolitionists and Maroon Rebels. - Bristol Radical History Group." Bristol Radical History Group. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.
"American Slavery: 1600 - 1699." American Slavery: 1600 - 1699. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2014.

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Pendulum Clock

Clocks have been inaccurate up until now. They use inaccurate springs that are off by minutes each day. But now, Christaan Huygens has invented the pedulum clock, one that uses a swinging weight as a time keeper. The concept was originally conceived by Galileo Galilei in 1606 but was never completed. The Italian discovered that the necessary component to making a proper pendulum was isochronism, which makes the period of the swing the same for different sized swing. Huygens took this concept and turned it into a working invention. Due to this, a pendulum clock only loses about 15 seconds per day. This has caused many clockmakers to retrofit pendulums onto older clocks.

Works Cited
"Pendulum Clock." Princeton University. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014., shopping, wall Clocks, home and Garden Decore. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.


Until 16th century Malacca was just another fishing village located near Indonesia, but then it attracted attention of other people with easy access to Indonesian spices. Portuguese were seeking the wealth of spices and trades so in April 1511, Portuguese general Alfonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. Malacca is a small territory in Malaysia that is rich in spices. It is also a large link in the Asian Trade network. They conquered the city on 24 August 1511. After seizing the city Afonso de Albuquerque spared the Hindu, Chinese and Burmese inhabitants had the Muslim inhabitants massacred or sold into slavery. The missionaries like the Jesuit priest Francis Xavier have also visited to convert the natives to Christianity.

Works Cited
"Melaka." History of. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

"Europeans in India." Europeans in India. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

The Treaty of Tordesillas

Pope Alexander VI has just signed Treaty of Tordesillas into effect. The treaty involves Spain and Portugal and their land in the recently discovered Americas. Basically, the treaty states that a line, the of Line of Demarcation, will be drawn on a map. This line will separate Spain's territory from Portugal’s. It will also split all of the non-European world into either Spain or Portugal’s land. There are some problems I can foresee with this treaty. How will the pope enforce this? How exactly will the pope make sure that Spain or Portugal won't take each others land? Also, what will happen if other countries get involved? What if this land is actually bigger than we think? This treaty definitely has the potential to cause a war or other unrest. Overall, I think this might have been a mistake

Works Cited
"Treaty of Tordesillas (Spain-Portugal [1494])." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.
"GO.HRW.COM." GO.HRW.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.


Recently, Europeans have been starting to acquire new lands near India and Asia. In 1510, the Portuguese seized the island of Goa. Goa is right off the coast of India so it makes a great military and commercial base. A year in 1511, Portugal took the East Indies port of Malacca. They massacred the cities of Muslim population and took it as their own with the help of St Francis Xavier in 1542. Lately though, the Dutch have been challenging the Portuguese domination of Asian trade. Right now the Netherlands is part of the Holy Roman Empire, it looks like though, the Dutch will eventually split away from the Roman Empire and become independent. Considering their ever growing navy and their new Asian trade routes, their indecency is becoming more and more likely.

Works Cited
"Goa." History of. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.
"MERIAN,C. - Goa." MERIAN -Goa. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

Business in Asia

The trade business in Asia is thriving, money is being made, and fine goods are being brought to Europe. Some of these fine goods include silk, porcelain dining ware, tapestries, pottery, and spices. These unique goods come from all over Asia and from various regions. To obtain them ships sail for weeks and men walk for days, to trade for the silk from China, and the cotton tapestries from India. The porcelain dishes from Japan are decorated with ornate patterns and images. We also have been able to locate a place we believe is very productive and will make a lot of money and bring these rare spices of orient to you. These spices are straight from the islands of Asia. Some are cinnamon, pepper, salt, nutmeg, and cardamom. We have been able to retrieve these fine goods for low prices and sell them to the citizens for low prices.

Works Cited
"China Trade and the East India Company." China Trade and the East India Company. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

Interview with Indian Native

-Hello, Mr. Indian Native. You lived in the time when British colonized India. Can you tell us more about this time of period?

- To tell you the truth, at first no one expected that Britain would colonize India. Our only relationship with Europe only considered trading goods like spices, peppers, silk, and cotton. They created East India Company, which was main company of trading between India and Europe.
- How did British start to colonize India and how did it affect the society?
- There always was competition between British and Dutch traders. For British, Dutch were considered as a threat, so they took over the East India Company and were mainly controlling it. After a while, this company started to take over the government of India and control all the trading routes made from India. They were also Jesuit missionaries who were converting us to their religion. Most of people were unsatisfied with British rule so East India Company finally broke in 1833.
- Thank you for coming

Works Cited
"Compulsory Conversion of Native Americans to Christianity by Spanish Jesuit Missionaries in the 16th Century." Magnolia Box. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.
"PortCities Bristol." Colonisation and the East India Company. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014

Obituaries of Age of Exploration

Age of Discovery, was a time of period which granted a lot of changes to human society. However, society would not be the same today, without important figures like Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan and Galileo Galilei. These people played a huge role in Age of Discovery.
Christopher Columbus was the explorer who sailed across the Atlantic ocean several times, having desire to find direct route to Asia, but he underestimated Earth’s size instead he found new continent America. Ferdinand Magellan was the first explorer to sail around the world and reach the Pacific Ocean through a passage on the southern tip of South America. Ferdinand was the one who name the ocean Pacific. Galileo Galilei was astronomer and mathematician who invented the first telescope, proved heliocentric theory by observing the night sky, and discovered odd number progression by observing inclined planes. His discoveries thought to counter the Bible so he was put under house arrest for rest of his life.
Works Cited A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014
"Galileo Galilei." A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2014.
"Christopher Columbus." A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.
"Shakespeare's Time:The Renaissance, Elizabethan Era, and the Age of Discovery Tags: Age of Discovery, British Literature, Elizabethan Era, History, Renaissance, Shakespeare ." The Age of Discovery. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

Christianity in Japan

Roman Catholic Jesuit missionaries led by Francis Xavier were welcomed to Kyōto in 1549. Their conversion was most successful in Kyūshū, with about 100,000 to 200,000 converts, including many vassals. In 1587, Hideyoshi reversed course and decided the Christian presence was harmful and might present the Europeans with an opportunity to disrupt Japan. The Christian missionaries were seen as a threat; the Portuguese merchants were allowed to continue their operations. The edict was not immediately enforced but restrictions grew tighter in the next three decades until a full-scale government persecution destroyed the Christian community by the 1620s. The Jesuits were expelled, churches and schools were torn down, and the vassals were forbidden to become Christians. Converts who did not reject Christianity were killed. Many Christians went underground, becoming hidden Christians , but their communities died out. Not until the 1870s was Christianity re-established in Japan. Works Cited "Christan Martyrs of Japan." Martyrs of Japan. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2014
"Christianity in Japan." Christianity in Japan. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2014.