muscular dystrophy

congenital conditions

what is muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass.

What causes this?

causes of muscular dystrophy

Certain genes are involved in making proteins that protect muscle fibers from damage. Muscular dystrophy occurs when one of these genes is defective.

Each form of muscular dystrophy is caused by a genetic mutation particular to that type of the disease. Many of these mutations are inherited. But some occur spontaneously in the mother's egg or the developing embryo and can be passed on to the next generation.

Can it be prevented

Some forms can be prevented. For example post Polio Syndrome (a condition of muscle weakness that develops in adulthood in patients that had polio as a child) can be prevented by vaccinating children against polio


The main sign of muscular dystrophy is progressive muscle weakness. Specific signs and symptoms begin at different ages and in different muscle groups, depending on the type of muscular dystrophy.

toddler signs

Signs and symptoms typically appear between the ages of 2 and 3, and may include:

  • Frequent falls
  • Difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting position
  • Trouble running and jumping
  • Waddling gait
  • Walking on the toes
  • Large calf muscles
  • Muscle pain and stiffness
  • Learning disabilities

How can it be detected

is diagnosed through a physical exam, a family medical history, and tests. These might include: A muscle biopsy (the removal and exam of a small sample of muscle tissue) DNA testing.


There's no cure for any form of muscular dystrophy. But treatment can help prevent or reduce problems in the joints and spine to allow people with muscular dystrophy to remain mobile as long as possible. Treatment options include medications, physical therapy, and surgical and other procedures. Mediations , physical therapy ,and surgery
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