Genetics

Conner & Kaitlyn

what is the study of genetics?

The study of genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel is the father of genetics. He is an Austrian monk. He studied pea plants for his genetic trait discoveries. He was the first to succeed in predicting how traits would be transferred from one generation to the next.

Alleles & Genes

A dominant allele is the allele that masks, overpowers. A recessive allele the allele that gets masked, overpowered. Heterozygous is two alleles for the same trait that differ from each other. Homozygous is two alleles of the trait that are the same. Genotype is gene combinations of an organism. Phenotype is the way an organism looks or behaves.

Punnett square

A punnett square is a genetic tool used to calculate offspring probability of receiving traits. In the example to the right its crossing a yellow pea plant with a green pea plant. The phenotype for the yellow pea plant would be yellow. The genotype for the yellow pea plant would be YY, or heterozygous Yy. The phenotype for a green pea plant would be green . The genotype would be yy.  

Incomplete dominance

Incomplete dominance is a mixing of the phenotypes for a trait.

Codominance

It has phenotypes of both homozygotes produced in heterozygous individuals. (both alleles are expressed equally)  RW-1/2 WHITE-1/2 RED  creates pink!

multiple alleles

An inherited pattern in which traits are controlled by more than 2 alleles. if one parent has A blood and the O blood allele and the other paerent has B blood and an O blood allele then there kid now has a chance of getting B, A, AB, and O blood

sex-linked traits

sex chromosomes are indicated by X and Y. Females are XX and Males are XY. the males controles the sex of the offspring because if he gives and X then its a girl but if he gives a Y then its a boy. sex linked traits are characteristics determined by genes on sex chromosomes. Sex-linked traits can be on the X or Y chromomsomes. but it is more common on the X.