*-0.2% natural increase
*80.19 life expectancy
* 1.6 net migration
*73.9% urban population percentage
After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815 the German economy was suffering. Foreign imports (especially cloth from England) flooded the German markets and German industry could not compete. In addition inheritance tradition of dividing farms among families was making farms so small that they were unsuccessful.
The population had grown very large and was dependent on the potato to sustain it. In 1840 rural Germany was struck by the potato blight which led to famine.
German princes sponsored societies (in the 1830's and 40's) that provided one way tickets to the poor with the idea that in the long run it was cheaper than long-term subsidies.
A bestselling book in 1829 about Missouri by Gottfried Duden inspired a tidal wave of emigration.
Social and economic discrimination in Germany led to the emigration of thousands of German Jews during all the immigration waves and Catholics after the May Laws of the 1870's.
During several of the immigration waves, young men emigrated to escape being conscripted in the German (Prussian) military service.
Aid societies promoted immigration by supporting bettering the conditions of immigrants
The north-central states (Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michegan) promoted their states for settlement among Germans with funding and support from their state legislatures.
The transcontinental railroads sent agents to ports of departure and arrival to recruit immigrants to take up their land grants or ship their goods through their freight lines.
Chain migration occurred during the later phases of German immigration as newcomers joined family and friends who had made the journey before them,
Political Factor: Radical Protestants called the Mennonites (Anabaptists) were first 50 German immigrants to America
*5.66 net migration rate
*80.88 urban population
-closer to family
-war or attacks
-loss of job
It is stationary pyramid because it has narrow base and roughly equal numbers in each group.
- Germany lost 1.5 million inhabitants in its most recent census
- The population is predicted to fall by 19 per cent to 66 million by 2060
- Policy makers are throwing money at families in bid to stem the birth dearth
- Experts say it needs to welcome immigrants and encourage mums to work
- Germany's birth rate has fallen by 11% since 2000, while UK rose by 4.1%