Green Revolution and GMO's

Created By Sarah Gutierrez

What were the causes and results of the Bengal Famine in 1943?

Not only was the food shortage a factor of the Bengal Famine of 1943, but the relationship between India and the British also led to the devastating famine. During World War II, the British did not view food as vital to the war. Furthermore, people of India would keep certain foods out of reach so that the value of the crops would increase. Food security became a forewarning to India. Around four million people died in India because of the Bengal Famine. Even though, India attempted to overcome food shortages, the strives proved unsuccessful (especially with a rapidly increasing population). The Bengal Famine led to one of the most significant agricultural movements in history- the Green Revolution.

Source( Pic) : (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Bengal_famine_1943.png

2.Three Basic Elements of the Green Revolution in India

1. "Continued Expansion of farming areas"

From 1947, as the demand of agriculture products grew, more strategic techniques were needed. In addition to improved approaches, more land was required in order to cultivate it.

2." Double-cropping existing farmland"

Before the Green Revolution, there was only one main cropping season per year. With the Green Revolution, double cropping allowed for more crops to be produced. Double cropping is the act of planting two crops one after another on one area of land in a year. The original season is "natural" rather than the second season that is considered "artificial". Since double cropping relies on fertilizers and irrigation, the second season became only possible with building certain features (i.e. dams).

3. "Using seeds with improved genetics"

The Indian Council for Agricultural Research that was finally brought back together 1973 helped to bring about the most technological feature of the Green Revolution. Specifically, improved HYV seeds ( millet, corn, rice).The K68 HYV variety seed was the most significant for producing wheat.

3.Two Positive Results of the Green Revolution in India

1)The Green Revolution allowed India to become one of the most influential agricultural producers , especially in grains. It was recorded that there was a "131 million tons of grains in 1978-79" produced.


2)The amount of agricultural product produced increased "by more than 30 per cent" from the period that India became an independent country to the Green revolution ( 1947-1979).


3) During the Green Revolution, the total land being cultivated using HYV varies grew from 7 % to 22%. As for the land that was used to produce specific crops with the HYV seeds, 70% of wheat area, 35% of rice area, and 20% of the millet and corn area, was influenced by the seeds.

4. List three positive, economic, sociologic, or political results of the Green revolution in India

Economic

1.Since the HYV required more essential agricultural factors such as water and fertilzers, jobs were created in order to fulfill those demands. Jobs increased in the sector of manufacturing that also helped the GDP.

2. Due to the Green Revolution, India had the chance to prove its potential as a country by paying back all of its loans to the World Bank.

3. Countries that were struggling with agricultural were wanting the same results from the Green Revolution in India. As a result, India would send farmers to the countries to show them more efficient techniques. These framers were able to send there relatives in India money. India benefited in terms of foreign exchange.

Sociological

The creation of jobs ( in the agricultural and industrial field) gave the people of India a better way of life ( improved the Standard of Living).

Political

1.Not only did overcome major starvation, but they also rose to become an important agricultural producer. The rehabilitation of crop production in India improved its status in relations with other nations.

2. The Green Revolution contributed to the uprise of political power of Mrs Indira Gandhi and the India National Congress.

5. Limitations of the Green Revolution in India (2)

1) Even though the Green Revolution greatly increased the amount of crops produced in India, it still has not been a complete success as the growing population can not be fu;;y sustained. In 1979 & 1987 , India experiement droughts, and has import several crops such as onions and sugar.

2) The HYV seeds have not been proved advantageous to many crops besides grains. Environmental aspects come into place when the HYV seeds can grow efficiently in regions like Punjab and Haryana.

Green Revolution Concerns

Human Health Risks(Quality of diet,malnutrition)

  • People in developing countries had more access to crops, though the lack of vital nutrients continued to affect the population.
  • Crops that had a greater profit were produced more than those with the nutrients
  • Policies were implanted to support the greater valued crops
  • Overall, this altered the diets of people in developed countries, with certain improvements with more available protein and fat, but the poor still suffered from malnutriotion.

Environmental Impact (Pesticides and Water Use)

  • The Green Revolution depended greatly on irrigation
  • In order for agricultural products to grow at a faster rate, water is needed around three times more for irrigation , along with fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Over- pumping was a result of the irrigation method, which caused " shortages in groundwater."
  • Arsenic was found in groundwater that at the time of the Green Revolution was used to drink ( shown to increase risk of cancer)
  • "The Effects of the Green Revolution: Effects of Arsenic Contamination." The Effects of the Green Revolution: Effects of Arsenic Contamination. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

GMO's

Pros- GMO's

  • Have shown a greater resistance to disease
  • Researchers "added the snapdragon genes to produce a gentically modified tomato that contains high levels of anthocyanis, chemicals that might protect against certain cancers and cardiovascular disease." Those mice that were given the tomato, had a higher life expectnancy.
  • Gorelick, Daniel. "Scientists Developing Cancer-Fighting Purple Tomatoes." IIP Digital. US embassy, 3 Nov. 2008. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/article/2008/11/20081103084128adkcilerog8.112735e-02.html#axzz3HL5Db894>.

  • Allows developing countries to produce a greater amount of agricultural goods
  • "Of 15.4 million farmers that planted GM crops in 2010, over 90 percent (14.4 million) were resource-poor farmers in developing countries.
  • Adenle, Ademola A. "Are Transgenic Crops Safe? GM Agriculture in Africa." http://unu.edu/. United Nations University, 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2014. <http://unu.edu/publications/articles/are-transgenic-crops-safe-gm-agriculture-in-africa.html>.
  • Foods can be enhanced for flavor and taste
  • "Moreover, he said conventional crossbreeding or cross-pollinating of different varieties for desirable traits, along with improved farming, are getting better results boosting yields at a lower cost."
  • OLSTER, MARJORIE. "GMO Foods: Key Points In The Genetically Modified Debate." Huffington Post, 2 Aug. 2013. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/02/gmo-foods_n_3693246.html

Cons-GMO's

  • Requires a greater need for pesticides and fertilizers, harms land
  • In fact, according to the USDA and EPA data used in the report, the quick adoption of genetically engineered crops by farmers has increased herbicide use over the past 9 years in the U.S.
  • Hoffman, Beth. "GMO Crops Mean More Herbicide, Not Less." Forbes, 2 July 2013. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/bethhoffman/2013/07/02/gmo-crops-mean-more-herbicide-not-less/>.
  • More costly
  • Scott lives on a farm in northwest Indiana, where he and his family grow wheat, corn, soybeans, and popcorn. He recently paid $119 an acre for his GM corn (for the seed alone) as opposed to $87 an acre for conventionally bred corn.
  • Johnson, Nathanael. "Are GMOs worth their weight in gold? To farmers, not exactly." Great Ideas in Science and Technology, 26 Sept. 2013. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. <http://grist.org/food/are-gmos-worth-their-weight-in-gold-to-farmers-not-exactly/>.

  • Health risks such as antibiotic resistance and allergic reactions
  • Amflora contains a gene that produces an enzyme which generally confers resistance to several antibiotics, including kanamycin, neomycin, butirosin, and gentamicin.
  • Hickman, Martin, and Genevieve Roberts. "Fury as EU approves GM potato." The independent, 4 Mar. 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/green-living/fury-as-eu-approves-gm-potato-1915833.html>.

Scary Fact about GMO's!

Almost 70 -80% of the food see in U.S. commercial retailers have GMO's.

"GMO Facts." GMO Awareness. 16 Sept. 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.


Source ( Pic): (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.plowtoplatefilms.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/organic-gmo-label.jpg

GMOs