Sectionalism and Industrialisation
The American System
The American System consisted of three re-enforcing parts: A tariff to protect and promote American industry, a national bank to foster commerce, and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other "internal improvements" in order to develop profits for agricultural markets. Proposed by Henry Clay, this plan was used to strengthen and unify the nation. It was advanced by the Whigs and several politicians, including John C. Calhoun and John Quincy Adams. The American System, plotted in a burst of nationalism following the War of 1812, remains as "one of the most historically significant examples of a government-sponsored program to harmonize and balance the nation's agriculture, commerce, and industry".
The Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine was stated in President James Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress in 1823, on December 2nd. The European Powers were obligated to respect the Western Hemisphere as the United States interest. It is the best known U.S. policy toward the West Hemisphere, warns European nations that the U.S. would no longer tolerate further colonization or "puppet" monarchs. Invoked in 1865 when the U.S. government showed diplomatic and military pressure in support of Benito Juarez, the President of Mexico. This enabled Juarez to successfully revolt against the Emperor Maximilian, who was placed on the throne by the French.
The Missouri Compromise
The Missouri Compromise was an effort proposed by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by Missouri's request in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery was permitted. In the early months of 1819, Missouri was being organised as a territory, which is when James Tallmadge of New York proposed an Amendment that would have ended slavery, but it was defeated, just as John Taylor of New York's plan regarding the Arkansas Territory was. When the compromise finally passed, it included the following provisions: (I). Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine as free, and (II). Except for Missouri, slavery was to be excluded from the Louisiana Purchase lands north of latitude 36'30''.