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Martin Luther and his 95-Theses
Martin Luther, a monk and professor at the University of Wittenburg, created a list of ninety five items that was an attack on abuses in the sale of indulgences. The Pope at the time, Pope Leo X, disregarded this saying that Luther was "some drunken German who will amend his ways when he sobers up."
Need for Reform
A series of popes didn't meet the Church's spiritual needs. Instead of being good leaders of Papal States they were often more concerned with Italian politics and worldly interests. Julius II, also known as the "warrior-pope", disgusted Christian followers that viewed the pope as a spiritual leader and not a military leader.
Luther's religious movement became a revolution over a few years. He gained German rulers support and around 300 states in the Holy Roman Empire. Luther's doctrine soon became known as Lutheranism and the churches were known as Lutheran churches. The Peasant's War was Luther's greatest challenge because German peasants revolted and looked to Luther as their leader. Luther took the side of the lords and felt that the rulers were picked by God to keep the peace.