HPV - Human Papillomavirus

Kavi Patel

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Symptoms!

The HPV virus is located in the mucous membrane, in the genital area or on the skin. If you do have HPV, genital warts show up weeks or months after sexual contact. These warts can be located in a variety of places. For example, they can be seen on the anus, cervix (the narrow necklike passage forming the lower end of the uterus) scrotum ( a pouch of skin containing the testicles) groin ( the area between the abdomen and the thigh on either side of the body) thigh, or penis. There are many different types of warts, but most go away on their own. Some may cause complications with birth, though most are relatively harmless. The types of warts that can be contracted include genital warts, common warts, plantar warts, and flat warts. Genital warts may be unsightly, small lesion-like protrusions, but are relatively harmless and are mostly only seen in the genital region. Common warts are rough callus-like collections of skin which can appear all over the body. Plantar warts grow on the balls of feet and on the hands. They may

Causes!

HPV is misconceptually always said to be a product of sexual intercourse. Most of the time HPV is contracted through skin-to-skin contact and an open cut or abrasion upon oneself. Although, warts near the mouth or between the legs most likely are linked to sexual intercourse.

Immune Cells?

During the early stages of HPV, the innate immune system creates a pro inflammatory micro-environment (The immediate small-scale environment of an organism or a part of an organism, especially as a distinct part of a larger environment.) This will not work with HPV, or anything else the immune system does. This is because HPV has a variety of different strategies for avoiding it. HPV can avoid it by using E6 and E7 proteins. These viral proteins are thought to be the ability to induce tumors. The E6 protein is thought to promote cell pro infestation the degradation of the tumor suppressor. The E7 proteins were encoded by the high risk types of HPV’s. E7 binds to a place of the Rb protein, better known as Pocket Domains. These pocket domains sequences of Rb is very essential for its tumor function. It looses it function by the mutations of Rb and are appearing in a cluster within the pocket domains. E7 messes up the function of Rb.

Replicating!

HPV viruses replicate in mucus membrane and skin cells. Due to the diversity of different strains of HPV, it is difficult to determine if HPV replicates once per S-phase or at a random intervals in the cell’s development. It is proposed HPV copies its DNA strain inside the host up to 400 times. Then, the host cell divides to create two daughter cells. This is a lysogenic process.

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Treatment!

HPV cannot be cured but the warts may go away on their own. There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for health problems that it causes. Treatment focuses on removing the warts. HPV causes genital warts which can be treated by a physician. Cervical precancel can also be caused by HPV and can be treated. Women who get routine Pap tests can identify the problem before the cancer develops. Other HPV related cancers can be more treatable when diagnosed early.

Prevention!

There is only one way to 100% protect yourself from HPV which is complete abstinence. There are also FDA approved vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil). These can protect women against types of HPV that cause most cervical cancer. Gardasil can also protect men against genital warts. The HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV. Another way to reduce your risk is to limit your number of sexual partners. HPV is transmitted through skin to skin contact.

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