IPS EXAM STUDY GUIDE
2. Gather Data
3. Form Hypothesis
4. Perform Experiment
5. Analyze Data
Reaction in a Bag
Students found that substance A provides heat and some color, but substance be turns cold and gives a light pink color.
Inference- A conclusion based upon known observations.
Hypothesis- A purposed solution to a scientific problem.
Control Group- The group in the lab that is left alone for comparison to the experimental group.
Experimental Group- The group in the lab that is tested on and receives the variable being tested.
Control Factors- Variables that are held constant. They are the same for both the control group and the experimental group. (ex: how much you stir a liquid in a tube)
Indicator- A substance used to show the presence of another substance
Volume- the amount of substance that something takes up.
Volume Displacement Technique- quick and easy way to determine the volume of a solid or gas. Used many for things that have holes in them (Ex: rock).
Mass- the amount of matter in a substance. ( true of solids, liquids, and gasses)
Meniscus- the curved bottom of the graduated cylinder. Used to measure the liquid in the graduated cylinder. Must read at eye-level.
The glass at the bottom of the tube was burning, not the actual baking soda. Also, there is condensation at the top of the tube, because the outside air is much cooler than the inside of the test tube. The control group was the unheated baking soda, experimental group was the heated baking soda, and the indicator was the tea.
-amount of baking soda
-amount of tea
-same type of tea
-amount of stirring time.
The condensation on the top of the cylinder is less than the amount of baking soda, because the condensation comes from the baking soda, therefore it cannot become greater than the baking soda. Carbon Dioxide is the gas that comes out of the baking soda.
1. A hole in rubber tubing
2. Stomper isn't on tight enough.
3. Tubing is not on the top of the bottle.
4. The burner is capped too early.
Baking Soda makes things rise when heated. Therefore that is why it's used during cooking. It is Sodium Bicarbonate.
1.2 Volume Notes
If a graduated cylinder is more taller and less wider, it has more spaced out increments because there is less surface.
Single Pan Balance Notes
2. Always zero the balance before each massing.
3. Never switch pans between balances.
4. Pick up balance by red bar only.
5. Return riders to zero when done.
1.4 Lab The Use of the Water Displacement Technique
Volume of Dry Sand: 56
Volume of Water: 42
Volume of Sand and Water: 94
Volume of sand alone: 52
Volume of Air: 4
% of dry sand that is sand: is/of = sand alone divided by dry sand= 93%
% of dry sand that is air: is/of= air divided by dry sand= 7%
Volume of water that fills the air space: (basically what is the air space) 4
Volume of water doesn't fill air space: (water minus air) 38
- Sand sticks to the side of the wet cylinder
- Record sand level not H2O level
- Pour H20 into sand (volume of sand plus water increases)
- Sand gets stuck in the funnel
- Pour sand too fast, it overflows
1.8 Sensitivity of A Balance Lab
The sensitivity of balance is the margin of error your balance has when massing an object.
Conservation of Mass- In all changes, mass is exactly conserved, provided nothing is added or allowed to escape. Must be a closed system! Not true for volume though.
Laws of Nature- Guesses generalization based on many experiments. Can be adjusted when necessary to account for any changes in the limitations of a law.
2.1 Lab: Mass of Dissolved Salt
- Cleaning pan btwn Mi and Mf
- Salt spills from cap to bottle
- Remove cap before the Mf
- Not shaking long enough
- Cap isn't on tight enough ( the H2O spills out)
- Not drying the cap (salt starts to dissolve)
- Bottle wet on outside of Mi
( Most of these lead to decrease in mass )
Remember that if you leave water with dissolved salt in it in the sun, the water will evaporate and the salt will still be there.
2.4 Lab Ice Ice Baby ;)
- Shaking the bottle
- Leaving the condensation droplets on the bottle
- Not letting the ice melt all the way
- Not drying off the bottle
- Opened the cap off the bottle
2.5 Lab: The Mass of Copper and Sulfur
- shaking test tube
- hole in rubber sheet
- sheet is not on tightly
- capping the burner too early
2.6 Lab: The Mass of a Gas
- cap wasn't on tight enough
- not drying the outside of the bottle
- not drying the cap
- Removing cap
- water splashes out when loosening cap
2.7 Law of Conservation of Mass
Property of substance: identify what the object is made of
3.2 Mass and Volume
- re-mass same cylinder
- cylinder is still wet
- not enough water in cylinder
- H2O splashes out of graduated cylinder
Mass & Volume Notes
- The mass of an object will double if the volume doubles
- Objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will not have the same mass.
3.5 Lab : The Density of Solids
- Massing the rock after finding the volume
- Mixes up cubes
- Measuring a side of a cube/slab twice
- Measure from end of ruler not 0
3.6 The Density of Liquids
- Student did not dry cylinder before massing
- Liquids sticks to inside wall of cylinder
- Dry out cylinder after its massed
3.7 Density of a Gas
- Hand not tightly on the cap of bottle when pulling it out of the water
- Spill water when finding the volume in the bottle
- Break tablet after Mi
- Hole in tubing or stopper falls off
- Air bubble in bottle
- Did not put foil on the pan
Density of the Air in Classroom
The density of air is 1.2 x 10^-3
The formula is:
d/g/cm3 times m/volumeDimensions: 12m x 9m x 4m
V= 1200 x 900 x 400 ( they are meters, and they need to be centimeters. It doesn't fit on a calculator, so you need to do this): The answer is 432000000, so it would need to be 4.3 x 10 ^8
You then could do 1.2 x 10^-3 times 4.3 x 10^8.
Answer: 5.2 x 10^3
- It makes things rise
2. How many kilograms are in a gram?
3. How many centimeters are in a meter?
4. SHOW WORK