Tundra

By: Heather Walsh

Vitals of biome.

The tundra biome covers 20% of the earth. The tundra goes from most of Greenland to part of Alaska, notheren Canada, and northeren Russia. The latitudinal range is 75 degrees N to 60 degrees N. It is mainly cold in the tundra it never reaches higher than 50 degrees fahrenheit. It doesn't rain often really mainly snow.

Climate of the biome

The tundra really only has two seasons, winter and summer. Summer only last for 6 to 10 weeks. it Also doesnt even get that hot. The average temperature in the summer is 45 or 50 degrees fahrenheit. In the winter it is about -20 or -30 degrees fahrenheit. It never reaches higher than 20 degrees fahrenheit. The tundra only gets about 6 to 10 inches of rain each year.

Plant Life

One plant that lives here is arctic moss. The moss is an aquatic plant so it lives in fresh water and fens ( wetlands with a constant high water level). It has adapted to the climate by when it is not growing it collects nutrients and stores it. Another plant that lives in the tundra is arctic willow. How the Arctic willow adapts is it grows a shallow root system so the permafrost doesn't affect it growing. Another way it adapts is it grows long fuzzy hair on its leaves so it protects itself from the cold weather. The bearberry plant is another thing that grows in the tundra. It adapts to the cold weather by having leathery leaves and it grows low to the ground to stay out of the wind. The reindeer lichen adapts by going dormant when there is no water or light. When there is finally water/light is awakens and begins to grow. The last plant that grows in this biome is the diamond-leaf willow. The pasque flower adapts to cold weather by growing low to the ground to stay away from the harsh weather. It also covered in fine silky hairs to insulate it. The biggest characteristic that plants in the tundra biome is that they grow close to the ground to avoid the high winds. Another one is the roots are shallow because of the permafrost.


Animals

A characteristic that most animals have in the tundra is they have layers of fur. Also they have fur on the bottoms of their feet in keep heat in. The arctic fox adapts to the tundra by its fur changing colors with the seasons. Also it has stealthy movement since it is a predator. The caribou adapts to the biome by having fur change color. The polar bear is another animal that adapts to the biome. They adapt by having a thick layer of blubber. Also their fur clear so the sun hits their black skin and keeps them warm. The harlequin duck adapts by being a great swimmer and is also able to fly. The harlequin duck is prey to the arctic fox. The grizzly bear has a thick layer of fat to keep it warm and it hibernates during the winter. A grizzly bear can kill a caribou if it wanted to. A polar bear in the summer will kill and eat an arctic fox. It will also hunt a duck in the summer. Musk ox have to compete with grizzly bears for plants like bear berry bush. The arctic fox has to compete with the ermine for small rodents.


Ecological concerens and fun facts

The tundra is the world's youngest biome. The word tundra comes from the finnish word tunturia which means barren land. The polar bear is one of the endangered species in the tundra. The snowy owl is threatened to exciton. The global importance of this biome is that it is home to thousands of plants and animals and without them the whole food web system will go crazy.