Components of Fitness

Health Related Fitness

Everyone needs to have a level of fitness for everyday activities.

Health related exercise improves the health related fitness factors which are also useful to sportspeople. These are:

  • Cardiovascular fitness is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina. It involves the cardio (heart) and vascular (blood vessels) system.
  • Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. It helps sportspeople to hit, tackle and throw. There are three different types of strength; 1. STATIC: muscle length remains the same e.g., Tug of War, 2. EXPLOSIVE: one all out effort from the muscle group e.g., Shot-Put. 3. DYNAMIC: muscle length alters frequently over time e.g., Canoeing
  • Muscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired. It helps sportspeople to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer.
  • Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. It helps performers to stretch and reach further.
  • Body composition is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone. It helps sportspeople depending on the type of sport they play, eg heavy rugby players are more effective in the scrum than lightweight players, but light long distance runners will always beat heavyweights.

Skill Related Fitness

Sportspeople exercise to improve fitness and performance.

Skill related fitness factors are essential for success in sport. The video below explains how each component can effect performance in a given activity.

GCSE PE - Skill Related Factors of Fitness

Health Screening & Fitness Testing

GCSE PE - Health Screening & Fitness Testing

Frequently Asked Exam Questions

Level 1 Questions

1. What is meant by the term ‘reaction time’? (1marks)

2. What is meant by the term ‘balance’? Give an example from a physical activity where a performer uses balance. (2marks)

Level 2 Questions

3. What is meant by the term 'static strength'? Give an example from a physical activity where a performer uses static strength. (2marks)

4. Using an example from a named physical activity, explain how increased flexibility can help to improve performance (3marks)

5. What is meant by the term 'agility'? Give one example from a physical activity where a performer uses agility. (2marks)

6. Describe the procedures involved in a test to measure strength and Why is strength important for effective performance? (4marks)