Acids and Bases

Madison Scott -& Selenia Lemly

Acids

A Lewis acid is an electron pair accepter
A Arrhenius acid, when added to water increases the number of ions in water.

Strong acids are completely ionized. Some examples are:

  • hydrochloric acid
  • sulfuric acid
  • hydrobromic acid

Weak acids are only partly ionized

  • formic acid
  • hydrofluoric acid
  • nitrous acid

Physical and Chemical properties of acids are:

  • Physical: sour taste, soluable in water, pH levels less than 7, most acid solutions are corrosive, all acids diluted can conduct electricity
  • Chemical: reacting with reactive metals to form salt and hydrogen gas, react with metal carbonates to form salt, carbon dioxide and water, reacts with bases(Alkali) to form saltwater

2 examples that you can tell if a substance is:

  • When dissolving in water, if hydrogen ions go up, it is an acid
  • Blue litmus paper turns red

Bases

A Lewis base donates pairs of electrons

A Arrhenius base when added to water increases the number of OH- ions in water

Strong bases are fully ionic, some examples are:

  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • Potassium Hydroxide
  • Borium Hydroxide

Weak bases are not fully ionic, some examples are:

  • Ammonia
  • Pyridine
  • Methylamine

Physical and Chemical Properties of bases are:

  • Physical: bitter taste, slippery touch, conduct electricity,

turns red litmus paper blue

  • Chemical: pH higher than 7, react with acidic substances



Reactions

Measurement

measure strength of acids and bases with the pH scale

  • acid: 1-6
  • neutral: 7
  • base: 8-14

Indicators

Acid Rain

Visuals