ORGANIZATION IN LIVING SYSTEMS

Cells to Organ to Tissue to System

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Standards 7-3A

Standard 7.L.3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the levels of organization within organisms support the essential functions of life.


Unit 1: Cells

7.L.3A.1 Obtain and communicate information to support claims that (1) organisms are made of one or more cells, (2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function of organisms, and (3) cells come only from existing cells.

7.L.3A.2 Analyze and interpret data from observations to describe different types of cells and classify cells as plant, animal, protist, or bacteria.

7.L.3A.3 Develop and use models to explain how the relevant structures within cells (including cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and vacuoles) function to support the life of plant, animal, and bacterial cells. 7.L.3A.4 Construct scientific arguments to support claims that bacteria are both helpful and harmful to other organisms and the environment.

CELL: UNIT 1

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Electron Microscope

There are as many creatures on your body as there are people on Earth

The Tenets of the Cell Theory

The first three are the original tenets.

The last two have been added as we grow with understanding.

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The wacky history of cell theory - Lauren Royal-Woods
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Characteristic of Living Organisms

All living organisms:

  • are made of cells (unicellular or multicellular)
  • can respond to stimuli (senses)
  • can perform chemical activities (ingest, digest, respire, excrete)
  • can grow and develop (cell division)
  • can reproduce their own kind (asexual or sexual)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zl0NXSbeeqg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VC_acwviSiA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-zafJKbMPA8

PROKARYOTIC CELLS

Cell without a nucleus, the DNA is a single chain found in the cytoplasm; the kingdom with these cells include bacteria.

EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Cells with a true nucleus where the DNA is found; it has a cell membrane and multiple organelles too; kingdoms with these cells include animal, plant, fungi, and protist.
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KINGDOMS ARE CELLS

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Kingdoms are cells!
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Animal Kingdom

eukaryotic multicellular vertebrates or invertebrates, must find their food;

food chain role - consumer

Plant Kingdom

eukaryotic multicellular organisms that make their own food through photosynthesis;

food chain role - producers

Compare an Animal Cell to Plant Cell

Compare and contrast these structures/organelles common to animal and plant cells:

cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and vacuoles.

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You Are Responsible For Understanding These Cell Structures: K!

cell wall

cell membrane

cytoplasm

nucleus (DNA)

mitochondria

chloroplast

vacuole

lysosome

Can you identify the structures above in the diagrams below?
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Fungi Kingdom

eukaryotic multicellular organisms which break down dead organic material;

food chain role - decomposer

disease agent - pathogen

Protists Kingdom

eukaryotic unicellular or multicellular organisms;

food chain role - producer, consumer

disease agent - pathogen

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Bacteria Kingdom

prokaryotic unicellular organisms;

food chain role - producer, decomposer

disease agent - pathogen

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-chXVgu8Z0

Helpful & Harmful Bacteria

Decomposers are helpful bacteria - Acidophilus, a normal inhabitant of yogurt

Pathogens arre harmful bacteria - Streptococcus, the bacterium that causes strep throat

Bacteria for Kids - Animation Video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxM_9DL2GYw
Live Bacteria Under The Microscope & UVC Light
Killing bacteria example 1
Bacteria attacking White Blood Cells

Cell Processes You NEED To Know

Diffusion & Osmosis

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Mitosis

DIFFUSION & OSMOSIS

These processes allow materials to move in/out of the cell through the membrane.
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diffusion and osmosis

PHOTOSYNTHESIS & CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Photosynthesis is the process of making glucose or food molecules.

Cellular Respiration is the process that releases energy from food molecules.

(aerobic respiration is another name for cellular respiration)


SEE DIAGRAM BELOW

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Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration

MITOSIS

Mitosis is a type of cell division (process).

The process results in two identical daughter cells.

Each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.

This process allows organisms to grow, develop, and repair tissue.

We will cover mitosis THOROUGHLY in our genetic unit.


STAY TUNED........................

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A GREAT Mitosis Video
Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply! (Updated)

SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT

Science Changes


ummm....6 Kingdoms? Where's bacteria?


History of Classification of Living Things

Trend up to the 1960s

- 2 Kingdoms: Plant and Animal

Trend up to present. I have textbook to prove it. Ask me to show you.

- 5 Kingdoms: Animal, Plant, Fungi, Protist, Bacteria

Current trend but waning fast!

- 6 Kingdoms: Animal, Plant, Fungi, Protist, Eubacteria, Archaeabacteria

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Standard 7.3B

Standard 7.L.3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the levels of organization within organisms support the essential functions of life.


Unit 2: Human Body Structural Organization

7.L.3B.1 Develop and use models to explain how the structural organizations within multicellular organisms function to serve the needs of the organism.

7.L.3B.2 Construct explanations for how systems in the human body (including circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems) work together to support the essential life functions of the body.

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Joke Time

Did you pick your nose? No, I was born with it.

What kind of hair do oceans have? Wavy

HaHaHa, LOL, LOL, Oh my, gosh this is so stupid!!

Multicellular Organisms

ARE Structurally Organized: That means life has order!


1. cells make tissue - cells are the basic unit of life

2. tissues make organs - tissues are a mass of specialized cells

3. organs make systems - organs are made of different tissue types

4. systems make organisms - systems are made of organs that are connected

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Two Competing Scientific Theories

Evolution Theory

- atomic level evolves to next level, then another, until organism is complete.

Creation Theory

- organism as complete explaining working parts as structures designed to sustain.


Both have scientific evidence to support the theory. Check it out.

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Cell Tissue Organ System Organism - BBC Curriculum Bites

Human Body Systems

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Musculoskeletal System

Function - provides movement, support, organ protection, muscle attachment

Muscular System Organs

  • Cardiac muscle - involuntary muscle that forms the heart.
  • Smooth muscle - involuntary muscle that controls internal organs.
  • Skeletal muscle - voluntary muscle that moves bone.


Skeletal System Organs

  • Bones - provide shape, structure, produce blood cells, store minerals.
  • Joints - where 2 or more bones meets.


Connective Tissue


  • Ligaments - attach bone to bone at joints
  • Tendons - attach muscle to bone
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Nervous System

Function - Receive internal and external stimuli, interpret stimuli, and respond to stimuli.

Organs

Brain - main organ

  • Cerebrum - thoughts, voluntary, 5 senses, "thinker"
  • Cerebellum - balance, coordination
  • Stem - involuntary such as breathing, digestion, heart beat

Spinal Cord - bundle of nerves from stem through vertebrae

Peripheral Nerves - nerves that branch out from the spinal cord to entire body

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Circulatory or Cardiovascular System

Function - transports blood to all parts of the body so that gases, nutrients, and waste products are transported to and from cells.

Organs

Cardiac Muscle - heart

Blood Vessels - tubes that carry blood

  • Artery - carry oxygen rich blood and nutrients to cells.
  • Vein - carry waste products to heart to then be then be excreted
  • Capillary - tiny vessels where the exchange of materials occurs

Blood - plasma (92% water) containing red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets.

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CAPILLARIES

So itty bitty, yet HUGELY important structures which are vital to life!

These little "guys" get lots of action.


  • Gases, nutrients, fluids are exchanged here.
  • It's the cross over point!
  • Waste goes one way, good "stuff" the other.
  • Highly organized flow.
  • Go figure!
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVJJHw_Ocp4
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Respiratory System

Function - provides a gas exchange between blood and air

Organs

Nose - collects, moistens, heats air

Trachea - windpipe; moves air nose to bronchi

Bronchi - moves air into lungs

Lungs - contain alveoli sacs where gas exchange occurs

Diaphragm - muscle which causes lungs to inflate and deflate moving air

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Alveoli

They are about 600 million alveoli in your lungs and they are all covered with capillaries, which is where the oxygen gets into your blood!
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Gas Exchange

Diffusion of carbon dioxide from capillaries to alveoli sacs

and the diffusion of oxygen gas from alveoli sacs to capillaries.

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Digestive System

Function - breaks down food into nutrients that can be used by the body and moves water to circulatory system.

Organs

Mouth - mechanical and chemical digestion begin here

Esophagus - tube that moves food to stomach

Stomach - continues digestion by secreting gastric juices and churning food

Small Intestine -


  • most chemical digestion occurs here
  • food molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream through this section


Large Intestine - water from food is absorbed into blood stream; waste moves on

Rectum - solid waste is eliminated from this short tube

Anus - opening where solid waste is excreted.


Auxiliary Organs (secondary)


  • Liver - produces bile which breaks down fat and filters blood
  • Gallbladder - stores bile produced by the liver
  • Pancreas - produces digestive juices that further break down food
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Excretory (Urinary) System

Function - filters cellular wastes, toxins, and excess water that results from cellular respiration

Organs

Kidney - structures that clean blood separating waste from useful materials.

Ureter - tube that carries waste or urine from kidney to bladder.

Bladder - a saclike muscular organ that stores urine

Urethra - small tube that excretes urine from the body

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Human Body Games & Videos

Organs of Human Body Systems

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All Systems Go

Do this activity just for fun. Help Arnold find his missing body parts. Just tap on All Systems Go

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