The Living Cell

The Basic Building Block Of Living Organisms

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The development of technology opened up the microscopic world of cells.
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Electron Microscope

There are as many creatures on your body as there are people on Earth

Standards 7-3A.1

Obtain and communicate information to support claims that (1) organisms are made of one or more cells, (2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function of organisms, and (3) cells come only from existing cells.

The Tenets of the Cell Theory

The first three are the original tenets.

The last two have been added as we grow with understanding.

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The wacky history of cell theory - Lauren Royal-Woods

Characteristic of Living Organisms

All living organisms:

  • are made of cells (unicellular or multicellular)
  • can respond to stimuli (senses)
  • can perform chemical activities (ingest, digest, respire, excrete)
  • can grow and develop (cell division)
  • can reproduce their own kind (asexual or sexual)


Cell without a nucleus, the DNA is a single chain found in the cytoplasm; the kingdom with these cells include bacteria.


Cells with a true nucleus where the DNA is found; it has a cell membrane and multiple organelles too; kingdoms with these cells include animal, plant, fungi, and protist.
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Analyze and interpret data from observations to describe different types of cells and classify cells as plant, animal, protist, or bacteria.


The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Kingdoms are cells!
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Animal Kingdom

eukaryotic multicellular vertebrates or invertebrates, must find their food;

food chain role - consumer

Plant Kingdom

eukaryotic multicellular organisms that make their own food through photosynthesis;

food chain role - producers

Fungi Kingdom

eukaryotic multicellular organisms which break down dead organic material;

food chain role - decomposer

disease agent - pathogen

Protists Kingdom

eukaryotic unicellular or multicellular organisms;

food chain role - producer, consumer

disease agent - pathogen

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Bacteria Kingdom

prokaryotic unicellular organisms;

food chain role - producer, decomposer

disease agent - pathogen


Develop and use models to explain how the relevant structures within cells (including cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and vacuoles) function to support the life of plant, animal, and bacterial cells.

Compare an Animal Cell to Plant Cell

Compare and contrast these structures/organelles common to animal and plant cells:

cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and vacuoles.

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You Are Responsible For Understanding These Cell Structures: K!

cell wall

cell membrane


nucleus (DNA)





Can you identify the structures above in the diagram below?
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Construct scientific arguments to support claims that bacteria are both helpful and harmful to other organisms and the environment.

Helpful & Harmful Bacteria

Decomposers are helpful bacteria - Acidophilus, a normal inhabitant of yogurt

Pathogens arre harmful bacteria - Streptococcus, the bacterium that causes strep throat

Bacteria for Kids - Animation Video
Live Bacteria Under The Microscope & UVC Light
Killing bacteria example 1
Bacteria attacking White Blood Cells

3 Important Cell Processes

Diffusion & Osmosis

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration



These processes allow materials to move in/out of the cell through the membrane.
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diffusion and osmosis


Photosynthesis is the process of making glucose or food molecules.

Cellular Respiration is the process that releases energy from food molecules.

(aerobic respiration is another name for cellular respiration)


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Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration


Mitosis is a type of cell division (process).

The process results in two identical daughter cells.

Each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.

This process allows organisms to grow, develop, and repair tissue.

We will cover mitosis THOROUGHLY in our genetic unit.

STAY TUNED........................

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A GREAT Mitosis Video
Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply! (Updated)


Science Changes

ummm....6 Kingdoms? Where's bacteria?

History of Classification of Living Things

Trend up to the 1960s

- 2 Kingdoms: Plant and Animal

Trend up to present. I have textbook to prove it. Ask me to show you.

- 5 Kingdoms: Animal, Plant, Fungi, Protist, Bacteria

Current trend but waning fast!

- 6 Kingdoms: Animal, Plant, Fungi, Protist, Eubacteria, Archaeabacteria

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