Parenting

By: Dylan L., Dakota D., Austin R., Matt M.

Our Basic Idea...

The ultimate goal of every parent is to raise children into happy and successful adults. As children grow up, their mental habits develop with huge influence from the actions of their parents. This influence highly affects the abilities of children to grasp skills that will help them traverse life in the future. The ideal method of child rearing is one that balances the pros and cons of both authority and generosity, maintaining control while keeping the children’s perspectives and interests in mind. Authoritative parenting is this balance, the middle ground between authoritarian and permissive parenting


The Difference Between Authoritarian and Permissive?


According to an academic article by Jeanne Ballantine, a professor of sociology at Wright State University, authoritarian parenting is defined as being demanding, but unresponsive to the feelings of the child. Children are excluded from any decision making, and an atmosphere of mistrust is often prevalent between parent and child. Rules are non-negotiable and punishments corporeal. The overall result of this parenting style is an absence of intimacy which could lead to insecurities and lack of problem-solving abilities for youth later in life (Ballantine). An article by Alfred Lubrano, published in 2013 in the Philadelphia Times, asserts that such harsh parents actually cause physiological damage to the growing brain, slowly deteriorating the regions that process emotion like a poison (Lubrano). Ballantine defines permissive parenting as the polar opposite of authoritarian. These parents strive to shield their children from any discomfort whatsoever, and flex to their every demand. They often hide the truth when they believe the child could not handle it, but generally lack significant control of parent-child situations. This method is problematic due to the fact that once these youth grow up, they lack the necessary coping skills to confront the issues and stresses of adult life (Ballantine). While authoritarian and permissive parenting are entirely opposing methodologies, they both result in the same issue: namely, the production of psychologically unprepared adults.

The Authoritarian Type of Parenting

According to an academic article by Jeanne Ballantine, a professor of sociology at Wright State University, authoritarian parenting is defined as being demanding, but unresponsive to the feelings of the child. Children are excluded from any decision making, and an atmosphere of mistrust is often prevalent between parent and child. Rules are non-negotiable and punishments corporeal. The overall result of this parenting style is an absence of intimacy which could lead to insecurities and lack of problem-solving abilities for youth later in life (Ballantine). An article by Alfred Lubrano, published in 2013 in the Philadelphia Times, asserts that such harsh parents actually cause physiological damage to the growing brain, slowly deteriorating the regions that process emotion like a poison (Lubrano). Ballantine defines permissive parenting as the polar opposite of authoritarian. These parents strive to shield their children from any discomfort whatsoever, and flex to their every demand. They often hide the truth when they believe the child could not handle it, but generally lack significant control of parent-child situations. This method is problematic due to the fact that once these youth grow up, they lack the necessary coping skills to confront the issues and stresses of adult life (Ballantine). While authoritarian and permissive parenting are entirely opposing methodologies, they both result in the same issue: namely, the production of psychologically unprepared adults.

The Permissive Type of Parenting


So what is permissive parenting? According to Newsrx permissive or neglectful parenting is defined as a style of parenting in which parents are very involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them (NewsRx). Permissive parents don't have clear guidelines for children to follow like no set rules for things like curfews.When children misbehave or get in trouble whether that be in school or with the law, little to no punishment is inflicted as a consequence of the act. Unlike authoritarian parenting, permissive allows students to express themselves and have to freedom to grow. But although this seems nice in theory, children are more often than not left unguided and therefore make bad decisions that actually hurt them in currently and later in life. Although it may seem relaxing, NewsRx claims “neither permissive nor authoritarian parenting has been linked to positive outcomes, presumably because both minimize opportunities for children to learn to cope with stress” (NewsRx).Meaning this can actually increase stress levels. They later go on to claim that, children in permissive/indulgent households may lack the direction and guidance necessary to develop appropriate morals and goals, which is essential for the growth and development of children. A 2011 study has linked permissive parenting to lower activity levels in children and higher overall BMI ratings(UJi). Uji summarizes this data by saying “Neglectful parents don’t respond to the child’s needs and make relatively few demands. The data shows clearly that this parenting style has been associated with the most negative outcomes for children”(UJi)


The Authoritative Type of Parenting

The third style, authoritative parenting, is something of a blend between permissive and authoritarian. It is first and foremost both demanding and responsive. As stated by a study from College Student Journal, “Authoritative parenting style consists of a constellation of parent attributes that include high standards, emotional support, encouragement of bi-directional communication, and consistent enforcement of whatever rules they establish. In other words, they tend to be demanding but not restrictive”. Authoritative parenting is characterized by a high degree of involvement in a child’s life and a high degree of interest in their activities. This style strikes a middle ground between giving children free reign and keeping them on a short leash. Authoritative parents provide emotional support and comfort to their children, but do not shield them from every challenge the world throws at them and allow them to grow and develop on their own. They use force when necessary and appropriate, but are not abusive. While authoritative parents set concrete rules for their children and expect them to follow them, they are also understanding enough to make allowances when necessary. According to sociology professor Jeanne Ballantine, “These parents stick to their demands, but also keep in mind the needs of their child. They require that their demands be fulfilled before the child’s wish is granted, thus giving the child experience in decision-making, prioritization, time management”. Authoritative parents set realistic expectations for their children, and they provide their children with fair (or natural) consequences

Why Authoritative Should be the Ultimate Goal of Parents

The Authoritative parenting style provides the best balance of tough parenting and soft parenting, and is the most effective of the three styles. A study by Jeanne Ballantine shows that the style promotes mental health, self-esteem, decision-making, and success in school for children. It also teaches them problem-solving skills and shows that parents trust their children to do the right thing. A study by Debora Baldwin lists many benefits that the Authoritative style has on college students, including: better psychosocial skills, more confidence, persistence, self-reliance, optimism, better well-being, and more. An article by Steven Reinberg states that the style promotes academic success and positive peer relationships, and combats delinquency and substance abuse in not only the children of Authoritative parents, but their friends as well. Lastly, a paper by Uji Masayo promotes the style, saying it gives children higher social competencies and benefits their social, intellectual, moral, and emotional growth. The Authoritative style ultimately results in the most competent and prepared children who will be ready for challenges later in life

BIO

Authoritative Parenting. 2008. Itkcdn. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.
Authoritarian Parent. 2012. Denmark. Positive Parenting. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.

Baldwin, Debora R., Anne McIntyre, and Elizabeth Hardaway. "Perceived parenting styles on college students' optimism." College Student Journal 41.3 (2007): 550+. Student Resources in Context. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.
Ballantine, Jeanne. "Raising Competent Kids: The Authoritative Parenting Style." Childhood Education 78.1 (2001): 46. Student Resources in Context. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.
Estep, Hanna M., and James N. Olson. "Parenting style, academic dishonesty, and infidelity in college students." College Student Journal 45.4 (2011): 830+. Student Resources in Context. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.

Luis Irizarry. “Authoritarian Parenting Style Clip Example.” Online Video Clip. YouTube. YouTube, July, 27 2015. November 14, 2015.

Melissa Rogers. “Authoritative Parenting- The Cosby Show.” Online Video Clip. YouTube. YouTube, Sept, 30 2014. November 14, 2015.

"Parents who lash out at children can stunt brains, researchers say." Philadelphia Inquirer [Philadelphia, PA] 11 Dec. 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.

Parent Connection TV. “Permissive Parenting.” Online Video Clip. YouTube. YouTube, Jan, 6 2015. November 14, 2015.

Permissive Parenting. 2006. Parenting Science. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.
Reinberg, Steven. "Strict Moms Influence Kids' Friends: Study; Authoritative parenting can help teen friends cut drinking, smoking and drug use, researchers say." Consumer Health News 8 Oct. 2012. Student Resources in Context. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.
"Sensitive parenting can boost premature children's school performance." NewsRx Health 18 Aug. 2013: 109. Student Resources in Context. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.
Stewart, R.B., Jr. "Authoritative parenting: synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development." CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries May 2013: 1719. Student Resources in Context. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.
Uji, Masayo, et al. "The Impact Of Authoritative, Authoritarian, And Permissive Parenting Styles On Children's Later Mental Health In Japan: Focusing On Parent And Child Gender." Journal Of Child & Family Studies 23.2 (2014): 293. MasterFILE Complete. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.
Work-life-balance. 2015. Schaumburg, IL. Rjacpa. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.