Anne Frank

Persecution, Jews and Nazism

Who is Anne Frank?

Anne Frank was born on 12 June 1929 in the German town of Frankfurt am Main. She was the second daughter of Otto Frank who worked at a local bank and the daughter of Edith Frank . Anne’s sister, Margot is three and a half years older. The Franks were a middle-class, liberal Jewish family whose ancestors had lived in Germany for centuries. The Franks considered Germany their home. Anne Frank is famous for the diary that she kept from 12 June 1942 until 4 August 1944.

Hitler and the Nazis came to power!

A new life in The Netherlands:

Otto can set up a business in Amsterdam and the family finds a home on the Merwedeplein. The children go to school, Otto works hard in his business and Edith looks after the home. As the threat of war in Europe increases, Otto and his family try to immigrate to England and then to U.S.A. but these attempts fail. On 1 September 1939 Germany invades Poland and World War Two starts. For a while there is hope that The Netherlands will not become involved in the war, but on 10 May 1940 German troops invaded the country. Five days later The Netherlands surrenders and is occupied. Anti-Jewish regulations soon follow. Jews are allowed to go to less and less places, Anne and Margot must attend a Jewish school and Otto loses his business.

Going into hiding

For Anne's 13th birthday, she received a diary. Until she went into hiding, Anne wrote in her diary about everyday life.

The Franks had planned on moving to their hiding place on July 16, 1942, but their plans changed when Margot received a call up notice. After packing their final items, the Franks left their apartment.

Their hiding place, which Anne called the Secret Annex, was located in the upper back portion of Otto Frank's business. after 7 days, the van Pels family arrived at the Secret Annex to live. The van Pels family included Auguste van Pels, Ermann van Pels, and their son Peter van Pels. The last to arrive of the eight people to hide in the Secret Annex was the dentist Friedrich.

When the Frank's family got arrested

on August 4 1944, the frank's family and the four other hiding with the Franks were arrested. they were taken to WesterBork Kamp. Anne and her sister, Margot were transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Both sisters died of typhus in march 1945, just a few weeks before British troops liberated Bergen-Belsen on April 15 1945. Anne's mother Edith died in Auschwitz in early January 1945. only Anne's father, Otto survived the war.

Anne's diary

While in hiding, Anne kept a diary in which she recorded her fears, hopes, and experiences. Found in the secret apartment after the family was arrested, the diary was kept for Anne by Miep Gies, one of the people who had helped hide the Franks. It was published after the war in many languages and is used in thousands of middle school and high school curricula in Europe and the Americas. Anne Frank has become a symbol for the lost promise of the children who died in the Holocaust.

"In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart. I simply can't build up my hopes on a foundation consisting of confusion, misery and death"

Anne Frank Timeline

June 12, 1929:
Anneliese Marie, or Anne, is born in Frankfurt, Germany.

Summer 1933:
Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. The first anti-Jewish laws are established. The Franks decide that the family must move to the Netherlands.

June 12, 1942:

Anne receives a dairy for her 13th birthday

July 5, 1942:
Anne's older sister, Margot, receives a call-up notice.

August 4, 1944:

The residents of the Secret Annex are betrayed and arrested.

October 1944:

Anne, Margot, and Mrs. van Pels are transported to the Bergen Belsen concentration camp. Edith Frank remains in the women's subcamp at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

January 6, 1945:
Edith Frank dies at Auschwitz Birkenau.

March 1945:

Anne and Margot Frank die at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp within days of each other.

June 3, 1945:
Otto Frank arrives in Amsterdam.

Summer 1947:
The first 1,500 copies of Anne's diary are published in Amsterdam.