Persecution, Jews and Nazism
Who is Anne Frank?
Hitler and the Nazis came to power!
A new life in The Netherlands:
Otto can set up a business in Amsterdam and the family finds a home on the Merwedeplein. The children go to school, Otto works hard in his business and Edith looks after the home. As the threat of war in Europe increases, Otto and his family try to immigrate to England and then to U.S.A. but these attempts fail. On 1 September 1939 Germany invades Poland and World War Two starts. For a while there is hope that The Netherlands will not become involved in the war, but on 10 May 1940 German troops invaded the country. Five days later The Netherlands surrenders and is occupied. Anti-Jewish regulations soon follow. Jews are allowed to go to less and less places, Anne and Margot must attend a Jewish school and Otto loses his business.
Going into hiding
For Anne's 13th birthday, she received a diary. Until she went into hiding, Anne wrote in her diary about everyday life.
The Franks had planned on moving to their hiding place on July 16, 1942, but their plans changed when Margot received a call up notice. After packing their final items, the Franks left their apartment.
Their hiding place, which Anne called the Secret Annex, was located in the upper back portion of Otto Frank's business. after 7 days, the van Pels family arrived at the Secret Annex to live. The van Pels family included Auguste van Pels, Ermann van Pels, and their son Peter van Pels. The last to arrive of the eight people to hide in the Secret Annex was the dentist Friedrich.
When the Frank's family got arrested
"In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart. I simply can't build up my hopes on a foundation consisting of confusion, misery and death"
Anne Frank's dairy
This is a Primary source the most well known is her diary with its red and green checked cover, which she was given as a present from her parents on her 13th birthday on 12 June, 1942, just before she and her family went into hiding. Anne's dairy is important because it tells all of her experiences as she is endangered in a life of slavery and depression during the Nazi regime.
Star or David
This is a primary source the yellow Star of David bearing the word "Jew" has become a symbol of the persecution of the Jews. Jews in Germany and in the countries occupied by the Nazis had to wear a star on their clothes. so they could be easily identified.
Call up notice
This is a primary source On 5 July 1942, Margot Frank is called up, along with thousands of other jews in Amsterdam. She has to go to a labour camp in Germany. The picture shows a call up notice from Hitler's time.
Anne Frank's dairy
Star or David
Anne Frank Timeline
June 12, 1929:
Anneliese Marie, or Anne, is born in Frankfurt, Germany.
Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. The first anti-Jewish laws are established. The Franks decide that the family must move to the Netherlands.
June 12, 1942:
Anne receives a dairy for her 13th birthday
July 5, 1942:
Anne's older sister, Margot, receives a call-up notice.
August 4, 1944:
The residents of the Secret Annex are betrayed and arrested.
Anne, Margot, and Mrs. van Pels are transported to the Bergen Belsen concentration camp. Edith Frank remains in the women's subcamp at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
January 6, 1945:
Edith Frank dies at Auschwitz Birkenau.
Anne and Margot Frank die at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp within days of each other.
June 3, 1945:
Otto Frank arrives in Amsterdam.
The first 1,500 copies of Anne's diary are published in Amsterdam.