Spring 2014

ART 315 Intermediate Photography

Professor Garin Horner

ART 315 Intermediate Photography | T/Th 9-11:30

Office: 11F Mahan | Tel: x 4099 | Office Hours: T/Th 1-2:30


Adrian College Photography Facebook Page

Photo by Kristina Saeli

Official Syllabus

Course Description

This course is a more in-depth study of digital black/white and color photography. First we will explore film & chemical based black & white photography. Then we will study more aspects of digital photography. For digital editing we continue to work in the digital darkroom of AP Lightroom while expanding our knowledge of Photoshop. This course focuses further on aesthetic sensitivity & appreciation for photography. As we go more deeply, audience & critical thinking are examined as major considerations of photography. We will also begin to explore one’s voice & how visual image in photo has long influenced our perception & the way we understand the world we live in.

Course Objectives (By the end of the semester you will):

-Learn how to operate 35mm SLR & Holga 120 manual film cameras.

-Produce properly exposed negatives and digital captures.

-Become more confident with film/digital cameras as tools for image making.

-Perform corrective image editing with Lightroom & Photoshop.

-Discover how to use photographic images to visually communicate your perceptions,

thoughts, and ideas to develop a personal “voice”.

-Critically examine and communicate about photographic images in group critiques.

-Finish and present photographs in a body of work for exhibition.

Overall Outcomes*

-Creativity: Demonstrate an understanding of the entire photo/creative process.

-Seeing: Critique images with visual awareness & the ability to closely examine.

-Reading: Understand, interpret, evaluate & summarize readings.

-Writing: Communicate coherently, using the conceptual language typical of critique.

-Speaking: Speak clearly while striving to gain a command of this course’s vocabulary.

-Listening: Practice attentive listening to be able to demonstrate an interpretation &
analysis of what is heard in class and in videos.

-Critical Thinking: Be able to creatively problem solve, deliver supporting arguments,
while applying insight, logic, & reasoning to support conclusions.

-Computer Literacy: Synthesize an understanding of the logical processes of the
computer operating system & software with learning. Develop technical problem

solving skills in obstacles inherent in technology.

-Global Awareness: Understand & describe how the visual language crosses all
geographical, cultural, and political boundaries.

*Overall outcomes inspired by: http://www.lamarpa.edu/HB2504/syllabi/Spring%202012/Megnet%20Ruth/ARTS-1311-01%20-%20Design%20I%20(Two-Dimensional)%20Syllabus.html

Method of Instruction

1- A series of projects involving the visual, conceptual and technical

aspects of this art form.

2- Readings in text(s) and other materials.

3- Critiques and discussions.

4- Field trips.

5- Demonstrations and lectures (some of which may be on video).

Required Textbooks:

1. A Short Course in Digital Photography by Barbara London and Jim Stone (8th edition)

2. Capture by Dr. Glenn Rand.

Suggested Book:

Insight Meditation by Joseph Goldstein

What you will need:

1-35mm with manual capability (will be supplied)

1- Holga 120 Medium Format

1- Digital Camera - DSLR with RAW capability

-Film: 4 rolls each of ARISTA 400 speed 35mm and 2 rolls of 120 (at bookstore)

-Paper: 8 x 10 ARISTA VC variable contrast RC (at bookstore).

-Plastic Negative Storage Pages (supplied).

-Portable Hard Drive: Western Digital 500GB or 1TB Passport formatted for Mac & PC.

Special Notice About Photo Supplies:

Please write your name on your photo materials and your hard drive so when they are lost we know to whom they belong. Store all your files on your hard drive. The computers in the Mac lab are not safe for storage!

Creative Content – What Will You Photograph?

The creative content you choose for your photographs should be based on subjects that are important to you. Photograph what you love, what you are most connected to. Draw from personal experience, from your life. Your photography is about your world. Push beyond the familiar in order to grow as a photographer. You are in this course to explore and expand your potential, not repeat the familiar. If you are compelled to make the common or cliché image, do so. Then make a variety of images from different approaches to produce new and unique perspectives of your subjects that only you could create. Please make new photos for every assignment – NO recycling. You may not use photos taken before the date the new project is assigned.

Method of Instruction

1- Projects involving visual, conceptual & technical aspects of photography.

2- Readings in text(s), videos, and other materials.

3- Critiques and discussions.

4- Field trips.

5- Demonstrations and lectures (some of which may be on video).

How to Watch & Study a Video

1. Take a look at the video’s title. This will give you a handle on what the video is about. Once you think you know “generally” what the video is about write down anything you think you already know about the subject. It’s like taking note of where you are and using a compass to see where you might be heading.

2. Write down what you want to know about this subject.

3. Watch the video all the way through and just take it in. Pay attention but don’t worry about capturing the details.

4. During the second viewing take notes while you watch the video and try to include all the major topics, new vocabulary words, and factual information presented. Write down what you have learned from the video.

5. On a third viewing, watch the video in short pieces. Pause every 10-15 seconds and summarize out loud, like you are explaining to someone else, what you watched without looking at your notes. After your summary (out loud) look at your notes and fill in anything you missed.

6. After you have extracted the information feel free to make flash cards to test yourself on the factual information. But keep in mind that its better to understand the material and how the concepts go together than to just memorize everything. Try to relate the material to how you would use it in real life. This will help you remember.

7. There may also be readings associated with the videos. If so, find the connections between the video and the readings. The combination of readings with videos is a great way to study and learn because the only way to learn material is through repetition. Our brains have to encounter the same material over and over in order to learn it.

Disabilities: Adrian College provides support for students with disabilities through the Academic Services Office on the 1st floor of Jones Hall. If you have a documented disability, you should meet with an advisor to develop a program of support. If you are already working with Academic Services, please talk to me so we can discuss appropriate accommodations.

Course Expectations

All assignments and projects require the following:

ETime invested contemplating your approach to the projects.

ETime spent creating your final products, 6 hrs/wk outside class.

EA desire to aspire to produce professional quality portfolio images.

ECritiques of your artwork based on what you and others perceive.

ECommunicate in the critique of other’s artwork, based on your

insight and experience.


For every project there is a grading rubric and you should refer to the rubric to find the criteria used to evaluate your artwork. The grading results will be returned after your project has been evaluated/graded. This course has a possible of 1000 points. This syllabus shows the breakdown for how much each assignment and activity is worth and explains how your final grade is calculated.

Late Work

It is your responsibility to turn your work in when it is due. Hand in your work on time for full credit. Late assignments will drop half a grade (the number of points will vary depending on what is late) for every day the work is late.

Academic Integrity Policy:

Practice personal and academic integrity and take this policy VERY SERIOUSLY or you could lose the opportunity to attend this college. Violations of AC Academic Integrity Policy are opposed to the mission of Adrian College. Violations include plagiarism. Plagiarism involves submitting as one’s own work part or all of any assignment, which is copied, paraphrased or purchased from another source, without the proper acknowledgment of that source. If you have any questions about what constitutes plagiarism, please talk to me.

Other violations of academic integrity include cheating, collusion (working with another student – copying their work) fabricating data, helping another violate these policies, and attempting to gain advantage over fellow students by lying about the need for an extension, destroying library materials, etc. If you engage in dishonest behavior (see pp. 44-46 of the Adrian College Student Handbook for definitions and examples), you will receive a zero for that assignment, and I will notify the Dean for Academic Affairs of your behavior. A second offense will result in failure of the course.

As part of academic integrity in the art world, there is the matter of ORIGINALITY and COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT. All your final artwork must be original, created for this class, and you may not submit work for these course assignments that you created for a different assignment or another class. In doing so you will fail the assignment.

Classroom Policies and Conduct

This classroom is a small learning community with Adrian College where you have a

rare opportunity to develop intellectually and ethically. The first goal of our community is to create and maintain an environment that is safe and free of distractions that might jeopardize your learning potential. To accomplish this goal you will be expected to be civil and devote your attention to learning in the class. As part of this community I ask that you be on time, prepared, and active in your learning process. An active learning process requires your attention, note taking, and willingness to ask questions. Be aware of what is going on around you. Avoid distracting others and me by having conversations when you are supposed to be paying attention.

We strive to keep one another safe from physical and emotional harm”

– Adrian College Student Code Of Conduct.

-Come to class fully prepared to work. Give some thought to what you should bring with you when you leave your home and this will save everyone time in class.

-Trips to the bookstore or the cafeteria are NOT considered a good use of class time. Get your materials and food outside of class.

-No one can multi-task effectively. Focus on class and be aware of what you are doing and you will learn. When you try to multitask in class, it disrupts others and me.

-Courtesy: Avoid all inappropriate behavior. Have consideration for the feelings of others in the class. Don’t use language that will offend others. Insulting other students won’t be tolerated. Any form of harassment against another student (or me) including racist, sexist, homophobic, or other threatening behaviors creates a hostile environment and will not be tolerated and is in violation of Adrian College policies. It is also a violation of decent human behavior. You will be asked to leave the class if you can’t conform to these rules. Further academic action may also be taken against you. I encourage those who feel they have encountered a problem with civility and respect, please step forward and speak with me.

We should conduct ourselves with dignity & civility in our interactions with one another. – Adrian College Student Code Of Conduct.

-Our classroom is a place of mutual respect. Show positive regard and be kind (this is a really good rule to follow throughout your life). You don’t have to like everyone in the class, but act like you do. Be patient with others and offer your help if they are struggling.

We consider and seek to understand different ideas and viewpoint

– Adrian College Student Code Of Conduct.

-Respect everyone’s property and supplies. Don’t touch anyone else’s stuff without permission. This includes computer files (which by the way, should not be stored on the computer). Also treat computers better than you would your own computer.

We respect the rights and property of others. – Adrian College Student Code Of Conduct.

-Your computer work should not be stored on school computers. The drives on these

computers will be regularly “cleaned” to keep them running as smoothly as possible.

-Cell Phones. I love my cell phone, but I don’t bring it to class. If you bring your phone, please turn it off and keep it stowed while you are in class (do not put it on the desk in front of you). There is NO reason for you to take your phone out in class. If you take your phone out in class you lose one free absence, and then are counted as absent. You will have the opportunity to check your cell phone during a break in class.

EMERGENCY: Please inform all your friends and relatives that if there is an emergency and they need to get a hold of you…DO NOT call your cell phone! They should contact campus safety and they will send someone to our class. If I see or hear a cell phone you will lose the attendance points for the day.

We take responsibility for our actions, bear the consequences of those actions, and learn from them.– Adrian College Student Code Of Conduct.

Food: Drinks are ok to bring in areas (except the darkroom and the designated area in the computer lab). In some instances you can eat a snack, but you may not eat your meals during class. It is disruptive.

Laptop Computers: Due to multi-tasking, shopping, and Facebook abuse, laptops are now longer allowed in the Mac Lab.

Surfing, networking, games, & email. Sitting in front of a computer presents an incredible temptation that many find difficult control. Please web surf, Tweet, Text, Facebook, game, and email during your personal time outside of class.

Your undivided attention needs to be in class.

Your Ears: No headphones or ear buds in class (unless otherwise approved).

Stealing: Don’t steal. Don’t steal from students, don’t steal college property, don’t steal from anyone. If it isn’t yours, leave it alone.

We challenge others to take responsibility for their actions, bear the consequences, and learn from them. – Adrian College Student Code Of Conduct.

FERPA: In a nutshell, this is your privacy act. Because of this law Professors cannot discuss anything about your academic performance with your parents. Because you are in college you are now considered responsible adults. Please tell your parents that if they have any questions about your grades or activities in the classroom, they can’t call us. You are the only one who can give them that information. Having said that, I suggest you keep a clear, open channel of communication with your parents about your college career. If you choose to do so, you can opt to waive your FERPA rights and sign a release to allow your parents to gain access to your academic information.

In The Photo Lab (the darkroom)

The photo lab is a place of close proximity and darkness with a high potential for chaos. Because of this fact, here are some additional rules you should pay attention to:

-Before using an enlarger, make sure no one is using it.

-Put things back where they belong.

-Keep your enlarger area clean (don’t bring anything wet to your enlarger).

-Put unwanted test strips and prints in the trash.

-Don’t abandon partially processed prints.

-Open lab. You may use the lab at any time. Campus Safety will let you in.

-Only students enrolled in the classes may use the darkroom. Do not give access

to others.

-Failure to follow darkroom rules can result in the loss of your darkroom privileges.

-Clean Up After Yourself.

Safety in the Lab

-No food or beverages in the lab at any time. Food and drinks absorb chemistry.

-It is recommended that you not wear contacts in the lab.

-Chemistry can stain your clothes.

-Chemistry can irritate your skin (especially if you are allergic). Wear gloves.

-Wipe up spills with a damp towel.

-For chemical safety information, please check out the following Kodak site:

Material Safety Data Sheets and Article Information Sheets


Portable Hard Drives

You will need a portable hard drive for any computer-based course. When using portable USB drive (including a thumb drive) you should copy your work to the class computer hard drive before working on it. Never work directly from a portable drive. This will not only slow down your processing speed, but it can corrupt your data on the portable drive. WARNING: Do Not Use Flash Drives to Store Your Work!

Electronic Files

The truth about working with computers is that you should expect problems. Being inventive, resourceful, and learning to troubleshoot is part of working with computers. You should store your files on your own portable drive or computer and back them up on DVDs or cloud storage. Losing a file because you didn’t back it up or save it is not an excuse to hand in an assignment late.

In the Computer Lab

Keep drinks & food off your workstation. There is a space for comestibles at the back of the room.

What to expect from me, your Professor

First and foremost, I want you to be successful in this class and in your college experience. Never hesitate to ask questions because I want to help you overcome any obstacles you might have to learning. I am never too busy to meet with you, ask me about my schedule so we can find a time good for both of us. Communicate with me if you are going to miss class or be late or are having trouble. You can usually find me in Mahan, but you can also email or call my office any time and I will respond within 24 hours (weekends may take longer) Communication is the key to making your class experience a rewarding one. As far as grading assignments, I get grading done and hand assignments back as quickly as I can. If other professional responsibilities delay my grading, I will surely let you know.

What I expect from a Student

I expect that you have come to this class (on time) because you want to learn about photography. When in the class be present and proactive with an attentive mind and body. Find the intention in your mind to want to learn and be an active learner (as opposed to sitting, being passive and waiting to be entertained). My teaching will not necessarily cause you to learn. Learning is an active process that you must practice to learn. Make an effort to engage the assigned work and you will actively learn. Participate in your life!


Most questions are appropriate when you don’t understand something. It is commonly thought that the only bad question is the one that is unasked. This may be true, but some questions are only asked out of laziness. They are questions asked so I will repeat what is on this syllabus. Keep this syllabus for future reference. Don’t ask me about dates….I have way to many in my head to be accurate. I will have to do the same thing you will have to do and look at the class schedule on the syllabus. You should look it up first and then if you have questions, please ask.

How to send an email to a Professor

I expect a certain professional decorum when interacting and emailing. This decorum is for your benefit because it is the way professionals interact beyond college. When you send an email please use “Dear Professor Horner” (or some other salutation) and close with something line “Sincerely” or “Thank you” (or some other closing). In the subject line, include your course (ART 315 and your name. This helps me to direct my attention to you and your class before I open the email. Remember, emailing is not texting, it is more like letter writing. In all ways of communication others judge you by how you express yourself.

Attendance & Participation

200 possible points ( 7 pts per class session )

-Part of your grade depends on you being on time and prepared. You are required and obligated to be on time, present, and participate for the entire class session. Be prepared to complete the day’s assignments. I will take attendance and give demos promptly on the hour class starts (unless otherwise specified). If you miss information or handouts, then you are responsible for finding out what you missed. If you can’t be in class on time, then I suggest you pick a “buddy” you can rely on to fill you in. Arrive late, leave early you will lose 3.5 attendance points for the session. I will allow two absences without a loss of points. Athletes may not miss class for practices. Don’t schedule dentist, doctor or other personal appointments during this class. They are counted as absences.

Assignments, Critiques & Participation

320 possible points

- 8 assignments/crits x 40 possible points

- produce at least 2 distinctly different images per critique
-only submit images you specifically made for this Assignment.

- contribute verbally during the crit.

-You will contribute verbally during the critiques.

-Apply your full effort toward the completion of your assignments.

-Make two distinctly different images for critique (unless the assignment calls for only one image). I would expect you to explore variations of any given assignment. From those variations, choose what you feel is the best.

-If you use someone else’s artwork as part of your artwork, you must either significantly change the work or use it as a small portion of your own creation.

-If you use copyrighted material AT ALL, you can only use it for class purposes. You can’t post these images online or even use them in a portfolio outside of school.

-Sharing work with the group and listening to constructive criticism is one of the most valuable experiences of any ART course. Critiques help you assimilate what you have learned, gain insights, and reach conclusions about art and your creative process. You don’t need to comment about every image that is discussed in class but you should express some constructive thoughts or questions to receive credit for participation. Keep in mind that opinions are valueless. You are expected to present two images (the best out of what you did for the assignment) for each scheduled group critique regardless of the technical and/or aesthetic results.

-During crits, please don’t have conversations with others, do homework for other classes, play video games, email, or facebook.


Quizzes: 150 possible points (10 points per quiz)

Exams: 2 exams at 100 points each (200 points total).

At the midterm and at the end of the semester you will take exams worth 100 points each. These exams will cover information that you learned throughout the semester.

NOTE: If you miss a quiz, you must take the quiz before the next class or receive a 0.


At this advanced level, your expectations are higher with ART Ex points. Please take the initiative to explore beyond the confines and limitations of your own art world.

Special Assignment in Class

This special assignment will be announced in class.

Final Portfolio

100 possible points

Present 10 final images of your highest quality for your portfolio. Refine images you intend to use. The quality of your portfolio will be graded based on the Assignment Rubric. It will be evaluated by its visual impact, overall use of composition, technical mastery, editing, color & tonality, and its ability to visually communicate.

Course Evaluation and Grading

The grade for the course will be based on mastery of photography concepts and technical skills as described in the objectives and content descriptions and as seen in completed projects. There will be on-going class critiques and an individual mid-term and final critique. Projects, attendance, promptness, class participation, effort, and problem solving/creative/technical growth and development will influence the grade.

A-Superior B-Above average C-Average D-Below Average E- Failing

What Grade do You Want for This Course?

If you want an A:

Remember that A is not the “default” grade for doing the work required. A means you

went above and beyond course expectations. A represents “superior” performance.

1. Attend regularly with no absences (2 absences will not effect your grade).

2. Be an active participant in all class activities, discussions and critiques.

3. Fulfill your assignments with exceptional quality.

4. Demonstrate growth in originality, creativity, and technical ability.

5. Receive 90% or better for all projects.

If you want a B:

1. Complete the first 4 requirements above and receive 80-89% on projects and tests.

B means that you went a bit beyond with good quality work. B means “above average” performance.

If you want a C:

1. Complete the first 4 requirements above and receive 70-79% on projects and tests.

C represents average quality while attending regularly and getting your work done.

C is given for “average” performance.

D is below average and F or E is far below average and a failing grade.


Attendance Asst’s/Crits Quizzes Exams SA FP Total

200 pts 320 pts 150 pts 200 30 100 pts 1000

Grade Scale

A+ 1000-960 B+ 899-860 C+ 799-760 D+ 699-660 F 599 or less

A 959-930 B- 829-800 C- 729-700 D 659-630

A- 929-900 B 889-830 C 759-730 D- 629-600

Photography, as a powerful medium of expression and communications, offers an infinite variety of perception, interpretation and execution.
-Ansel Adams

10 Steps For Film Processing

1. Load the film on dry reels in a completely dark environment (never allow your film touch light until after it’s processed. Do Not Remove The Lid of the Tank until you are finished processing!!

Special Note for Processing One Roll: If you are developing only one roll in a 2 roll
tank, make sure the reel with the film is on the bottom of your tank.

2. Prepare your chemistry. We use different developers, so check the classroom white
board for mixture information. Be sure to mix chemistry in a Developer
Measuring Container. Mix to make a 68° solution and set aside. After mixing,
note the actual temperature of your solution and check the developing chart to get
your developing time. Write down this developing time.

Special Note for One Roll: If you are developing only ½ the chemistry
recommended on the bottom of the developing tank.

3. Pre-soak. In 68° water, soak your film for 1 minute and pour water down the drain.

4. Pour in Developer Mixture into the Developing Tank & Start Timing.

Ü Pour developer into the tank in a quick, continuous motion.

Ü Once the tank is full, agitate for 30 seconds.

Ü Rap the tank. This dislodges any air bubbles in the developer.

Ü Agitate for 5 seconds every 30 minutes.

Ü In the last 5 seconds of developing time, pour the developer down the drain.

Ü Pour 20 ounces of Stop bath from big container and have it ready. Use only a

Stop Bath Measuring Container.

5. Pour in Stop Bath. Agitate constantly for 30 seconds and pour stop bath back into the

big container. If you see that the orange chemistry has turned purple, stop and

pour it down the drain. Prepare 20 oz. of Fixer in a Fixer Measuring Container.

6. Fill Tank with Fixer. Fix for 10 minutes. Agitate for 30 seconds, then for 5 seconds

every 30 seconds. Pour fixer back into large Fixer Container.

7. You May Now Open the Tank. But, be careful because the film is in a very fragile

state and vulnerable to dust and scratches.

8. Remove reels from tank with film still installed.

Wash 20 Minutes in a Water Bath.

9. Wetting Agent. This step prevents water spots from forming on the film. Submerse

and agitate for 30 seconds in the prepared wetting agent solution.

10. Hang to Dry. When completely dry, cut film into strips and slide into negative pages.


Ü By snipping off the corners of the film strips, they easily slide into the sheets.

Ü Please don’t leave orphaned rolls of film in the wash without having a plan for getting

them out and hanging them to dry.

Ü I may remove dried film from the dryer to make room for more film.

Ü Check with me if you can’t find your film.


Its recommended you not wear contacts in the darkroom.

Chemistry may stain clothing.

Chemistry may irritate your skin, so rubber gloves are recommended.


How to Make a Contact Sheet

What you will need:

Photo paper – this paper is extremely sensitive to light. Do Not Open the box!
Your negative sheet
Sheet of glass
Piece of cardboard or your paper box

Your contact sheet, or proof sheet, is a visual reference for your negatives. You will make an 8 x 10 sheet of “thumbnail” images that correspond to all the negatives on your roll of processed film. This sheet will give you lots of valuable information, like which negatives will print well and which ones will be more challenging. The contact sheet will also tell us how to make adjustments in our camera exposures and film processing. Many photographers 3 hole punch their contact sheets and interleaf them with their negative storage pages in a binder.

The following procedures should be carried out only under the safe-lights of the darkroom. The proper way to produce a contact sheet is as follows.

1. Adjust your enlarger head so you have ample coverage for an 8 x 10 contact sheet. When you raise or lower the enlarger head, pay attention to the lock. The lock must be off when you adjust the height of the head. You can lock down the position when it is correct.

2. Close down the aperture on your lens and open up 2 stops. You don’t need to see what aperture setting the lens is on, just feel the clicks.

3. Set your timer for 3 seconds.

4. Tear or cut a piece of paper to use as your test piece. Piece should be about 2 inches wide by 8 inches long.

5. Place the test paper emulsion side up (shiny side) on the enlarger base, in your designated 8 x 10 area with the enlarger light off.

6. Put your sheet of negatives on the test paper, making sure that the test paper aligns with one strip of negatives.

7. Cover the negatives and paper with a piece of glass.

8. With your cardboard or box, cover all but ½ inch of your paper, which is below your negatives. Without moving any of your assembly, expose the paper for 3 seconds.

9. Carefully move the cardboard down the paper sheet another ½ inch and expose again. Do this 3-4 more times until your paper has been exposed with a series of 3 second exposures.

10. Process your test to see if you are in the ballpark of exposure time.


Assessing your Contact Sheet.

You may notice that the images on your contact sheet may appear too dark or light but don’t worry. Most of your negatives will print just fine. It may seem counter intuitive, but you don’t want to pay any attention to the images on your test. What you should look at is the area where the sprocket holes are at the sides of your negatives. To know the proper exposure for your contact sheet, the sprocket holes should be barely distinguishable from the blackness to the side of the negatives.

When you have determined a proper exposure place your negative sheet on top of a whole sheet of paper (glossy side up) and glass on top of that. Use the same exposure that you determined to be correct to make your contact sheet.


10 Step Digital Photography Workflow


1. While they are still in your camera, look through your digital captures (photos) and delete images you know you don’t want to keep. This editing step will save you time and trouble.

2. Copy edited files from your card into a folder on your external hard drive. During this process use the Adobe DNG Converter to convert all RAW files to DNG. You may also do this step in Lightroom. If using Lightroom, take this opportunity to rename your files.

3. Evaluate the images you have transferred. Check these images in Lightroom using the following criteria:

A. The file size (will the size of the capture work for your needs?)
B. Enlarge image to 100% and check the focus (sharpness).

C. Look at the Histogram for tonal range and clipping.

4. Make a copy of all images you intend to keep. Store (archive) the original file as a back-up. Rename this copy with the name Original as part of the name.

5. Crop the images, if needed.

6. Apply Global Adjustments (in Adobe Photoshop Lightroom) such as contrast, color balance, exposure, and saturation.

7. Apply Local Adjustments, such as localized contrast/exposure, spot removal, cloning, or other retouching. Use adjustment layers when possible.

8. Resize images for final output. “Save As” one image at the original size with layers (if exporting to Photoshop) and another at your desired final size.

9. Sharpen for final output.

10. Save final image in desired format (with layers flattened).