Responses to Signals Outcome

Multiple Sclerosis

Introduction

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease that effects the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is where the immune system attacks the Myelin Sheath and damages the Axon underneath, in either the CNS or the spinal cord. It is unknown what causes MS and there is no cure. Some medication can be used to help relive symptoms or slow progression.

As MS affects the CNS (and the CNS is the control for every process and action in your body) the symptoms can will be different in every case

Multiple Sclerosis

General Effects

The damage on the Myelin Sheath causes the CNS to be unable to function properly in sending a receiving signals. This can have a wide variety of effects on the body from fatigue, memory problems, emotional or personality changes, depression and other changes in the brain, vision problems or even vision loss, muscle weakness, low coordination or in advanced cases, Paralysis, tremors, seizures and dementia. These symptoms can either come in small episodes with minor effect to more permeant chronic symptoms that can worsen over time.

Affects on Homeostasis

MS can effect you airways through swallowing and breathing problems. Swallowing problems are not a common symptom but can be very serious. These problems can occur when there is a weaken in muscles from nerve damage effecting the body's ability to control the muscle. This may result in food and drink being inhaled into the lungs (which may lead to aspiration pneumonia) effecting the levels of gasses being absorbed and released via the avioli, this effect can disrupt gas levels in the body disrupting Homeostasis

MS can also effect air ways by weakening chest muscles causing shallow breathing not allowing someone to get the potential amount of oxygen they may need. Shallow breaths will also increase heart rate raising body temperature and with damaged neurone the person may not be able to active a negative feed back response, therefore not being able to maintain a constant homeostasis

Effects on a Cellular Level

A T-cell (which is a type of white blood cell) will move in to the CNS via the blood brain boundary. Once in the CNS the T-cells release Pro-inflamantory Cytokines (a protein messenger) which the increase the permeability of the blood brain boundary making it easier for other immune cells to move into the CNS. Some of these immune cells will release antibodies that will directly attack the Myelin Sheath. Where others will attach to the Myelin an phagocytose it exposing the axon underneath. By exposing the Axon (potentially damaging it) this will distorts, slows or stop messages passing along the neurone. MS can potentially destroy or effect the sodium-potassium pump not allowing the charges to switch with the influx on sodium ions therefore stopping the action potential from relaying the message down the axon to be passed on to another neurone