Shared, Close, & Guided Reading
Strategies for Developing Rigorous Readers
Our goal today is..
- Identify ways to engage students in massive amounts of processing and discussing a variety of texts
- Explain two types of practice needed to develop reading proficiency
- Plan TEKS-based instruction and practice using the gradual release of responsibility
- Define shared, close, and guided reading
- Identify critical teaching points for shared, close, and guided reading
- Explain how to use quantitative and qualitative measures to determine text complexity
- Select just right texts for each type of guided reading practice
- Create tiered questions to scaffold thinking within and beyond a text
- Describe the five steps for effective guided reading instruction
- Match grouping strategies to the desired result of the practice session
- Define formative assessments for monitoring reading skill development
- Identify scaffolds used during shared and guided reading
- Define prompts and cues
- Explain how and when to use prompts and cues to coach readers
£ Listening to reading (read aloud and using technology)
£ Reading with the teacher or a peer (shared reading)
£ Reading independently
£ Drawing/writing to respond to reading
£ Participating in discussion groups
£ Conferring with the teacher
Two Types of Practice
2. Varied Independent
Shared Reading Practice
Introduce key strategies
Model using think aloudsRead with students
10-20 minutes per day
Model working through the text
Read for or with students
The teacher is the scaffold
15-25 minutes per group
Students read the text independently
Instructional level text
The text is the scaffold
What are the 4 C's of Reading?
Systems of Strategic Actions and Processing
- Thinking within the text
- Thinking beyond the text
- Thinking about the text
Selecting Just Right Texts
- Quantitative Measures
- Qualitative Measures
Effective Text Introductions
2. Activate genre knowledge
3. Pose questions that establish a reading purpose
ERT find out what the problem is.
ERT find out why the setting is _______________.
ERT find out why the character feels ____________.
ERT find out what is going to happen next.
ERT find out what the author thinks about __________.
ERT find 3 facts about ___________.
ERT find out how ___________ solves the problem.
ERT find the words the character used to ____________.
ERT find out if ___________ will ____________.
ERT find out why ___________is _______________.
A Week with a Text for Close Reading
Day 1: Predict, Read, Summarize
Day 2: Reread, Draw Conclusions
Day 3: Author's Craft
Day 4: Making Connections
Day 5: Innovation of Text
Reading with a Pencil
Identify important ideas or key words
Draw pictures or graphic organizer
- Use the selected text to help students find important points in the text that can be used to build a summary.
- Write prompts that ask students to find and highlight answers about important details.
- Give students a copy of the passage and a highlighter.
- Read the prompts and have students find and highlight the main ideas and important details.
Plan a Shared Reading Lesson
2. Outline the mental processes a good reader would use for the learning target.
3. Decide on an approach to reading.
4. Read the text and identify the points to emphasize
5. Write an introduction.
6. Determine how the reading will be chunked.
7. Write questions to ask after the first read.
8. Decide on a reading response activity.
3. Practice with coaching and discussion
4. Word work or writing
5. Wrap up
Reread “old favorites”
Shared reading of a song or poem
Name that tune
Quick draw or write
Questions, Prompts, and Cues
Begin with questions to check for understanding.
Check for misconceptions or errors in thinking about the text.
Use prompts and cues to help students think through the problem area.
Background knowledge-What do you remember?
Process or procedure-What are the steps? What is the rule?
Reflective-Does that make sense?
Heuristic-What strategy could you use now to get unstuck?
Visual-Does that look right?
Verbal-Saying “This is important”
Gestural-use body movements or motions to draw attention to what is being missed
Environmental-Use the surroundings to influence students’ understanding
Book Talk Discussion Prompts
Retelling or summarizing
Word Work Suggestions
Recognize and spell high frequency words
Build sentences with high frequency words
Change words to create new words
Change words to add inflectional endings
Change words by adding prefixes and suffixes
Identify syllable patterns
Generate words to fit a given pattern
Read and take apart multisyllabic words
Sort pictures/words by sound
Sort words by syllable pattern
Sort words by meaning
Make word webs that show connections between words.
Write a personal narrative in relation to a specific event or incident within the texts.
Write a story that extends the text (sequel, revised ending).
Write the story from another character’s point of view.
Write to explain important points about the topic or how using the reading strategy helped you understand the author’s message.
Write an opinion or persuasive essay about the subject or message of the text. Be sure to take a position and defend it with evidence from the text and your personal experiences.
Plan a guided reading lesson
Reflections for the day
2. What have you added to your understanding?
3. What strategies have you added to your toolbox?
Kelly Harmon & Associates, LLC
Check Out Kelly Harmon's New Book!
Kelly Harmon & Robert Marzano teamed up to write Practicing Skills, Strategies, & Processes. The book is part of the Essentials for Achieving Rigor Series.
Practicing Skills, Strategies, & Processes: Classroom Techniques to Help Students Develop Proficiency explores explicit techniques for mastering this crucial strategy of instructional practice. It includes:
- Explicit steps for implementation
- Recommendations for monitoring students’ ability to develop fluent thinking
- Adaptations for students who struggle, have special needs, or excel in learning
- Examples and non-examples from classroom practice
- Common mistakes and ways to avoid them