Shared, Close, & Guided Reading

Strategies for Developing Rigorous Readers

Our goal today is..

Participants will understand critical elements of guided practice and be able to plan rigorous reading lessons and practice sessions.

Learning Targets

  1. Identify ways to engage students in massive amounts of processing and discussing a variety of texts
  2. Explain two types of practice needed to develop reading proficiency
  3. Plan TEKS-based instruction and practice using the gradual release of responsibility
  4. Define shared, close, and guided reading
  5. Identify critical teaching points for shared, close, and guided reading
  6. Explain how to use quantitative and qualitative measures to determine text complexity
  7. Select just right texts for each type of guided reading practice
  8. Create tiered questions to scaffold thinking within and beyond a text
  9. Describe the five steps for effective guided reading instruction
  10. Match grouping strategies to the desired result of the practice session
  11. Define formative assessments for monitoring reading skill development
  12. Identify scaffolds used during shared and guided reading
  13. Define prompts and cues
  14. Explain how and when to use prompts and cues to coach readers

Book Talks

  • What have you read lately?
  • Why did you read this text?
  • What was it about?
  • What lesson or message did you take away from the reading?
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    Reader's Workshop

    £ Listening to reading (read aloud and using technology)

    £ Reading with the teacher or a peer (shared reading)

    £ Reading independently

    £ Drawing/writing to respond to reading

    £ Participating in discussion groups

    £ Conferring with the teacher

    Rigorous Reading

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    Two Types of Practice

    1. Guided

    2. Varied Independent

    Shared Reading Practice

    Shared Reading

    Introduce key strategies

    Model using think alouds

    Read with students

    Heterogeneous groups

    Close Reading

    Careful and purposeful repeated readings

    10-20 minutes per day

    Model working through the text

    Read for or with students

    Heterogenous grouping

    Complex text

    The teacher is the scaffold

    Guided Reading

    Practicing strategies needed to deeply comprehend texts

    15-25 minutes per group

    Introduce text

    Students read the text independently

    Homogeneous groupings

    Instructional level text

    The text is the scaffold

    What are the 4 C's of Reading?





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    Systems of Strategic Actions and Processing

    1. Thinking within the text
    2. Thinking beyond the text
    3. Thinking about the text

    Selecting Just Right Texts

    1. Quantitative Measures
    2. Qualitative Measures

    Effective Text Introductions

    1. Overview

    2. Activate genre knowledge

    3. Pose questions that establish a reading purpose


    ERT find out what the problem is.

    ERT find out why the setting is _______________.

    ERT find out why the character feels ____________.

    ERT find out what is going to happen next.

    ERT find out what the author thinks about __________.

    ERT find 3 facts about ___________.

    ERT find out how ___________ solves the problem.

    ERT find the words the character used to ____________.

    ERT find out if ___________ will ____________.

    ERT find out why ___________is _______________.

    A Week with a Text for Close Reading


    Day 1: Predict, Read, Summarize

    Day 2: Reread, Draw Conclusions

    Day 3: Author's Craft

    Day 4: Making Connections

    Day 5: Innovation of Text

    Reading with a Pencil

    Identify important ideas or key words

    Ask questions

    Make connections

    Identify organization

    Draw pictures or graphic organizer


    Text-Dependent Questions

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    Guided Highlighting

    1. Use the selected text to help students find important points in the text that can be used to build a summary.
    2. Write prompts that ask students to find and highlight answers about important details.
    3. Give students a copy of the passage and a highlighter.
    4. Read the prompts and have students find and highlight the main ideas and important details.

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    Plan a Shared Reading Lesson

    1 Select a learning target.

    2. Outline the mental processes a good reader would use for the learning target.

    3. Decide on an approach to reading.

    4. Read the text and identify the points to emphasize

    5. Write an introduction.

    6. Determine how the reading will be chunked.

    7. Write questions to ask after the first read.

    8. Decide on a reading response activity.

    Guided Reading

    1. Warm-up

    2. Teach/introduce

    3. Practice with coaching and discussion

    4. Word work or writing

    5. Wrap up

    Warm-up activities

    Reread “old favorites”

    Shared reading of a song or poem

    Name that tune

    Word games

    Quick draw or write

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    Questions, Prompts, and Cues

    Begin with questions to check for understanding.

    Check for misconceptions or errors in thinking about the text.

    Use prompts and cues to help students think through the problem area.


    Background knowledge-What do you remember?

    Process or procedure-What are the steps? What is the rule?

    Reflective-Does that make sense?

    Heuristic-What strategy could you use now to get unstuck?


    Visual-Does that look right?

    Verbal-Saying “This is important”

    Gestural-use body movements or motions to draw attention to what is being missed

    Environmental-Use the surroundings to influence students’ understanding

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    Book Talk Discussion Prompts


    Retelling or summarizing

    Making inferences

    Making Connections

    Author's Craft

    Tech Tools

    Student Tellagami

    Word Work Suggestions

    Recognize and spell high frequency words

    Build sentences with high frequency words

    Change words to create new words

    Change words to add inflectional endings

    Change words by adding prefixes and suffixes

    Identify syllable patterns

    Generate words to fit a given pattern

    Read and take apart multisyllabic words

    Sort pictures/words by sound

    Sort words by syllable pattern

    Sort words by meaning

    Make word webs that show connections between words.

    Writing Tasks

    Write a personal narrative in relation to a specific event or incident within the texts.

    Write a story that extends the text (sequel, revised ending).

    Write the story from another character’s point of view.

    Write to explain important points about the topic or how using the reading strategy helped you understand the author’s message.

    Write an opinion or persuasive essay about the subject or message of the text. Be sure to take a position and defend it with evidence from the text and your personal experiences.

    Plan a guided reading lesson

    Reflections for the day

    1. Have you met your learning goal?

    2. What have you added to your understanding?

    3. What strategies have you added to your toolbox?

    Upcoming Workshops

    Kelly Harmon & Associates, LLC

    Kelly Harmon & Associates began in 2001 with a mission of instructional coaching and providing rich literacy resources for educators and parents. Our work incorporates research-based best practices for teaching and learning. Our services are professional development, curriculum development, instructional coaching, grant writing, project management, and technology integration.

    Check Out Kelly Harmon's New Book!

    Kelly Harmon & Robert Marzano teamed up to write Practicing Skills, Strategies, & Processes. The book is part of the Essentials for Achieving Rigor Series.

    Practicing Skills, Strategies, & Processes: Classroom Techniques to Help Students Develop Proficiency explores explicit techniques for mastering this crucial strategy of instructional practice. It includes:

    • Explicit steps for implementation
    • Recommendations for monitoring students’ ability to develop fluent thinking
    • Adaptations for students who struggle, have special needs, or excel in learning
    • Examples and non-examples from classroom practice
    • Common mistakes and ways to avoid them

    For more information click here!