Central Andes

History of Tierra Fria

Tierra Fria Spanish for cold land are mountain locations where high elevation results in a markedly cooler climateb then that encountered in the lowlands at a comparable lattitude
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life in the mountains

Living in the Andes Mountains requires adaptation, the Andes are the longest mountain range in South America. There are four different climate zones in the Andes Mountains. They are, the Tierra Calente, the Tierra Templada, the Tierra Fria, and the Tierra Helada. People adapt to living in the Andes Mountains by growing plants native to the area. They also build houses engineered for the area, and they also wear clothing that fits the climate in the area.
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Physical feature

The tierra fria covers much of the central Andes. This zone lies between 6,000 and 12,000 feet. Average temperatures vary from 55'F to 65"F. But the nights are colder. At high elevations, temperatures often dip below freezing. Mountains and valleys are the main physical feature in this zone. The mountains are steep and rugged. But flat basins and plateaus can be found among the peaks. A high plateau called the Altiplano lies at an average of over 11,000 feet between Peru and Bolivia. It contains Lake Titicaca, the worlds highest navigable lake.
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Plant life

Vegetation in this zone depends partly on rainfall. In some places, enough rain falls to support dense forests. Pines and other conifers are found there. In other places the land is so dry that only shrubs and grasses will grow. Elevation also affects what grows where. The tree line in the central Andes lies between 10,000 and 12,000 feet. The tree line is the highest elevation at which trees will grow.
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Farming

Farmers have adapted their practices to the highland environment. They grow crops that do well at high elevations These include potatoes, wheat, barley, corn, apples, and pears. Farmers also use terracing to carve fields out of steep hillsides. They build walls on the slopes and fill them in with soil to create flat land for planting. They irrigate the terraces with mountain streams. This method of farming goes back to ancient times. The Incas used terracing to build a great civilization.

Human adaptation

Around half the population of the central Andes are indigenous peoples. Most live in the tierra fria. The two main indigenous groups are the Quechua and the Aymara. Both groups were once part of the mighty Inca Empire. Over the centuries, the native peoples of the Andes have adapted to life at high elevations. They wear warm woolen clothes to protect them from the cold. They also build thick-walled houses out of stone or adobe brick. Even their bodies have adapted. They have developed larger lungs to get more oxygen from the thin mountain air.
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