Retinoblastoma

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Wipe Out Cancer Fundrasier

Thursday, Nov. 19th, 12:30pm

1555 Old Peachtree Road Northwest

Suwanee, GA

Come see us at the Wipe Out Cancer Fundraising!! Meet us at the Peachtree Ridge High School Commons on November 20, You will have the opportunity to learn more about retinoblastoma and many other cancers! You can even make donations to help end these terrible cancers!

Basic Info About Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the retina, the soft lining on the inside of the eye. The retina is made up of nerve tissue that senses light for your eye ("Retinoblastoma"). The cancer was first detailed in 1809 by James Wardrop ("Historic Review of Retinoblastoma"). The cancer occurs most commonly in children and is less common in adults ("Retinoblastoma"). 1 out of 3 cases of retinoblastoma are caused a mutation of the RB1 gene, 1 out of 4 cases the gene is inherited from the parents ("What Are the Risk Factors for Retinoblastoma?"). Retinoblastoma affects 250 to 350 children per year in the United States alone ("Retinoblastoma"). If untreated, the cancer will spread through out the eye, and eventually throughout the body. Some symptoms of retinoblastoma include the pupil appearing white instead of red when a picture with flash is taken of it, eye pain, the pupil constantly being dilated, and red eyes.


By: Carson McCullough

How Retinoblastoma Occurs

Retinoblastoma is the cancer that starts in the retina, thee very black part of the eye. It is most common for children to get this type of cancer. Rarely, children can have other kinds of eye cancer, such as medulloepithelioma. The retina is the inner layer of cells in the back of the eye. It is made up of special nerve cells that are sensitive to light. These light-sensing cells are connected to the brain by the optic nerve, which runs out the back of the eyeball. The pattern of light that reaches the retina is sent through the optic nerve to an area of the brain called the visual cortex, allowing us to see.


By: Akiyah Brown

Treatment

Types of treatment include:


  • Surgery (surgeons physically remove the tumor from you body)

  • Radiation therapy (using high power radiation to kill cancer cells or reduce tumor size)

  • Photocoagulation (using lasers to destroy them)

  • Cryotherapy (freezing smaller tumors)

  • Thermotherapy (using a laser to create heat to burn the tumors)

  • Chemotherapy (using strong chemicals to kill cancer cells)

  • Stem cell transplant (involves implanting stem cells from another person's body into a patient to help their cells fight back against the cancer)

(American Cancer Society)


Current Research


Doctors and Scientists are still working closely to brainstorm ways to cure retinoblastoma, without taking away vision. As of right now, due to retinoblastoma you could use your vision, but in the future there may be stronger forms of chemotherapy that will remove the cancer without having surgery.


Dealing with Surgery:


When you have surgery for retinoblastoma, it almost always means that you are having your eye removed. If this is the case, then you will need an artificial eye, which is usually made of silicone, the replacement eye will usually have the same color and shape as the other eye and it is very hard for people to recognize it as a replica. If caught early, the eye can be kept and remain healthy (American Cancer Society).


Dealing with Radiation Therapy:


When you have ERBT radiation therapy, it can cause skin irritation, or hair loss. Plaque radiation therapy, can impair vision (American Cancer Society).


Dealing with Photocoagulation:


Photocoagulation can lead to blind spots or damage of the retina (American Cancer Society).


Dealing with Cryotherapy:


Cryotherapy can lead temporary swelling of the eye and eyelid, or cause some blood vessels in the eye to shut down (American Cancer Society).


Dealing with Thermotherapy:


Thermotherapy can cause the iris to shrink or decrease in size and magnitude (American Cancer Society).


Dealing with Chemotherapy:


Chemotherapy can kill other fast spreading cells in the body and cause hair loss, sores, fatigue, and a general feeling of sickness (American Cancer Society).


Dealing with a Stem Cell Transplant:


Stem cell transplants can decrease the blood cell count, as it needs to make room for itself (American Cancer Society).


Support Groups


There are many different support groups, some being local, and others being online and across the world.


Charities


http://www.anangelseyes.org/


By: Brett Kerbey

Genetics of Retinoblastoma

The mutation that often causes retinoblastoma is located on the RB1 gene and chromosome 13. This gene provides instructions for creating the pRB protein, which means it regulates cell growth and keeps them from dividing too fast, uncontrollably (Genetics Homer Reference). When the gene does not do it's job, it is known as a mutation, a mutation in this gene will often cause retinoblastoma. This mutation has an autosomal hereditary link, as it occurs in the first 22 non-sex chromosomes.


By: Brett Kerbey

Organizations/ Charity's


St. Jude


St. Jude is a great website where anyone could find about others life story and how can someone get helped by a small donation. This cancer only occurs in children. Two thirds of Retinoblastoma patients are diagnosed before they are 2 years old and more than 90 % are diagnosed before the age of 5. Approximately 75 % of children with Retinoblastoma have one tumor in one eye.


By: Akiyah Brown

Work Cited (Akiyah Brown)

Works Cited

Https://www.stjude.org/disease/retinoblastoma.html. N.p., 12 Mar. 2015. Web. 11 Nov. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma - Childhood." Cancer.Net. N.p., 16 June 2014. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma." - The Eye Cancer Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma." KidsHealth.org. Ed. Gregory C. Griffin. The Nemours Foundation, 01 Mar. 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma Treatment." National Cancer Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

"What Is Retinoblastoma?" What Is Retinoblastoma? American Cancer Society, n.d. Web. 13

Nov. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma Treatment." National Cancer Institute. Turning Discovery Into Health, 1 Oct. 2015. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.

Works Cited (Carson McCullough)

Works Cited


"Eye Health: Retinoblastoma and Your Child's Eyes." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2015.

"Historic Review of Retinoblastoma." National Center for Biotechnology Information. US National Library of Medicine, 6 June 1994. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma." Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 26 Oct. 2015. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma." KidsHealth. Ed. Gregory C. Griffin. The Nemours Foundation, 01 Mar. 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.


"What Are the Risk Factors for Retinoblastoma?" American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society, n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

Works Cited (Brett Kerbey)

American Cancer Society. "What Causes Cancer?" What Causes Cancer. HonCode, 2015. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

"Chemotherapy." American Cancer Society. HonCode, 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

"Genes, Mutations, and Cancer Risk." American Cancer Society. HonCode, 2015. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

"How Cancer Spreads." American Cancer Society. HonCode, 2015. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

"How Cancer Works." Ketopet Newsletter. Word Press, 2015. Web. 2015.

"How Does Chemotherapy Work?" PubMed Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

"How Is Retinoblastoma Treated?" American Cancer Society. HonCode, 12 Mar. 2015. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

"Immunotherapy: Promising Treatment for Cancer." Health Central. HonCode, 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

"Radiation Therapy for Cancer." National Cancer Institute. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

"RB1 Gene." Genetics Home Reference. HonCode, 2013. Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma - Childhood - Latest Research." Cancer.Net. ASC, 25 June 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma." Genetics Home Reference. HonCode, 2013. Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

"Types of Cancer." National Cancer Institute. US Department of Health and Human Services, 9 Feb. 2015. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

Warner, Glen. "Chemotherapy and Cancer." Cancer Treatment Tips. N.p., 2010-2013. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

"What Is a Mutation?" Young Genome. Welcome Genome Campus, 17 Nov. 2014. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

"What Is Retinoblastoma." American Cancer Society. HonCode, 2015. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.

"What Is Stem Cell/Bone Marrow Transplantation?" Cancer.Net. ASC, 05 Dec. 2013. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.

Picture Citations (Akiyah Brown)

"Eye Disease - Recognising Retinoblastoma." <i>Eye Disease</i>. Haymarket Media Group, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma New England." <i>Retinoblastoma New England</i>. WordPress, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.

"DIT 2013 Study Guide (2013-14 Dit) - Instructor Dit at Ross University School of Medicine - StudyBlue." <i>StudyBlue</i>. StudyBlue Inc., 2013. Web. 13 Nov. 2015.

"Retinoblastoma." KidsHealth. Ed. Gregory C. Griffin. The Nemours Foundation, 01 Mar. 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.

In Honor

This Newsletter is in honor for Cloe's Great Grandmother, Yolanda San Martin.