Restoration

Madalyn Swaringen

Architecture

Period of great opulence in English art, architecture, and design
Characteristics
  • Flowing, curvaceous forms (elaborate carvings and high-relief decoration)
  • Rich finishes (gold and silver)
  • Spiral columns (supports for furniture and architectural woodwork)
  • Natural Motifs (fruit, flowers, and leaves used to decorate work)

Economics

  • Commercial revolution
  • Growing trade with the colonies
  • People from England and Europe went to North America to make money in the lands and forests
  • The middle class grew

Religion

  • Voyagers sought freedom from religious persecution
  • People stopped thinking of unusual events (like earthquakes and comets) as punishments or warning
  • Deism - belief in a creator who does not interfere in the universe
  • But Christianity still continued to exercise an undiminished power over almost all Europeans
  • Religion determined people's politics
  • Charles II reestablished the Anglican Church as the official church of the country
  • The king tried to outlaw all the Puritan and Independent sects

Politics

  • The English people brought back the son of Charles I from his exile in France
  • He was crowned King Charles II, their new savior
  • To warn revolutionaries, they dug up the corpse of Oliver Cromwell and cut his head off
  • Religion determined politics
  • Parliament approved the outlaw of Puritan and Independent sects
  • Charles II was succeeded by his brother James II
  • James II was opposed by most Englishmen because he was a Roman Catholic
  • English leaders transferred power to Jame's daughter Mary
  • Mary and her husband William were declared king and queen in 1689

Science

Enlightenment - people started asking How?, not Why?


  • Edmond Halley calculated when celestial phenomena were going to occur
  • Isaac Newton (1642-1727) - physicist and mathematician
  • Newton's reflecting telescope (below)
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Ben Jonson

  • Poet, essayist, and playwright in London, England
  • Born June 11, 1572
  • Married Anne Lewis in 1594
  • Wrote his 'first great play' Every Man in His Humor in 1598
  • Friends with Shakespeare, John Donne, and Francis Bacon
  • Died August 8th, 1637
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Jonathan Swift

  • Irish author and satirist
  • Born November 30, 1667
  • Received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1686
  • Had a relationship with Esther Johnson
  • He wrote essays and a manuscript for Sir William Temple
  • Anonymously wrote stories criticizing religion
  • Became editor of the Examiner
  • Wrote many pamphlets
  • Died on October 19, 1745
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John Donne

  • Born in 1572, to a Catholic family
  • Attended Oxford University when he was 11 and University of Cambridge later on
  • Wrote many love lyrics and erotic poems
  • After his brother's death, he wrote about religion
  • Married Anne More in 1601, after becoming a member of Parliament
  • Focused on religious writings after his wife died in 1617
  • Became obsessed with death as his health weakened
  • Died March 31, 1631
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Carpe Diem Poets

Robert Herrick
  • Born August 24, 1591, in London
  • Became a disciple of Ben Jonson and wrote five poems about him
  • Principal work is Hesperides, a group of religious poems
  • More than 1200 short poems were in the collection
  • He was influenced by classical Roman poetry
Andrew Marvell
  • Born March 31, 1621, in Hull, England
  • Studied at Trinity College at the age of 12
  • Received his bachelor's degree in 1639
  • Held office in Cromwell's government
  • He criticized both the court and Parliament in his works
  • His poems were full of scathing political satire and complex lyric verse
  • Died August 16, 1678, of a fever