Unit 15 P3

The Principles of a Safe and Effective Exercise Session.

Purpose of A Warm Up

A warm up is used before any sporting activity to loosen the joints allowing them to have more movement and rotation. This can then prevent injury during or after the session. A warm up is needed to increase body temperature of joints and muscles that are going to be used for the session. It also increases blood flow allowing a participant to pace themselves or the activity in hand. A warm up can differ with its duration and the intensity of the session depending on the participant. Warm ups can be differ from a calm and easy jog to a 5 minute stretch. Sometimes a warm up can take around 20 minutes. Warm ups are meant to raising the participants heart rate. This helps set the pace for the main session in hand. The raising of the heart can also allow blood production produce quicker allowing oxygenated blood to flow to the working muscle faster ready for the main session meaning that the muscle may not fatigue during the main session. Dynamic stretches are also included in a warm up. Dynamic stretches refers to stretches that are movable. Dynamic stretching will keep the heart rate raised, allowing the muscle to be ready for the main session. This type of stretching increases flexibility by the use of momentum and rotation to gain effort when propelling the muscles into their extended version. exercises done in a warm up can vary depending on the sporting activity. A footballer may focus on short sprints and long jog where as a weightlifter may focus on stretching mainly and lower weight lifting.

Types of A Warm Up

There are two types of warm ups Specific ( aerobic routines) and general.

Specific (aerobic routines)

Aerobic exercise is a great way to increase heart rate or body temperature. Any aerobic routines should begin with a increase of the heart rate, stretching of the joints and muscles, then a sport specific component. Aerobic routines can consist of bleep tests to doing a 10 minute run.


General warm ups can consist of doing low weighted reps and sets to warm up muscles intended for the session in hand. general warm ups can also consist of attending resistance machines.

Cool Down

The cool down is very similar to the warm up, but is done after a session and is shorter and lowered of intensity. The cool down is designed to lower the bodies pulse rate after the session and to stop any injuries from happening until the next session. A cool down allows the removal of lactic acid, which prevents injuries. Cool downs keep the metabolic rate up for a participant. A cool down allows the removal of lactic acid by having dilated capillaries flowing oxygen through the muscle tissue. A cool down can reduce the effect of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). this will occur after a high intensity session. it is said that it is caused by small tear in the muscle fibres as a result of a session that may not have been suitable for a participant.


Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

This type of cool down is specially used for strengthening muscles and joint and also improved their range of movement that is based on static stretching. The target muscle group is stretched to almost their limit. The muscle is relaxed while another participant stretches it to its highest limit of range of movement.