Unit 15 P3
The Principles of a Safe and Effective Exercise Session.
Purpose of A Warm Up
A warm up is used before any sporting activity to loosen the joints allowing them to have more movement and rotation. This can then prevent injury during or after the session. A warm up is needed to increase body temperature of joints and muscles that are going to be used for the session. It also increases blood flow allowing a participant to pace themselves or the activity in hand. A warm up can differ with its duration and the intensity of the session depending on the participant. Warm ups can be differ from a calm and easy jog to a 5 minute stretch. Sometimes a warm up can take around 20 minutes. Warm ups are meant to raising the participants heart rate. This helps set the pace for the main session in hand. The raising of the heart can also allow blood production produce quicker allowing oxygenated blood to flow to the working muscle faster ready for the main session meaning that the muscle may not fatigue during the main session. Dynamic stretches are also included in a warm up. Dynamic stretches refers to stretches that are movable. Dynamic stretching will keep the heart rate raised, allowing the muscle to be ready for the main session. This type of stretching increases flexibility by the use of momentum and rotation to gain effort when propelling the muscles into their extended version. exercises done in a warm up can vary depending on the sporting activity. A footballer may focus on short sprints and long jog where as a weightlifter may focus on stretching mainly and lower weight lifting.
Types of A Warm Up
Specific (aerobic routines)
Aerobic exercise is a great way to increase heart rate or body temperature. Any aerobic routines should begin with a increase of the heart rate, stretching of the joints and muscles, then a sport specific component. Aerobic routines can consist of bleep tests to doing a 10 minute run.
Lowering of Pulse
After a session participants will take a cool down consisting of a lowering of the pulse. Exercises that include major muscle groups can be used by beginning at a high intensity level and then slowly decrease until a stop. The lowering of the pulse may take around 5 minutes. a main activity for this will be a cardiovascular exercise which should include most of the major muscle groups. to lower the heart rate to normal a cool down will start a quite high intensity and then lowered each minute to slowly lower the heart rate to its normal form, this can sometimes take around 5 minutes.
Stretches are used to prevent injury being caused after a session. Stretches can reduce the amount of lactic acid, and can increase the removal of waste products. Stretches also allow muscles to return to their normal length. Stretching will allow muscles to return to their normal length because when performing stretching muscle become warm allowing them to return to the normal length with the cause of injury or production of high amount of lactic acid.
Developmental stretches are used on muscles that are tight and shorter or needed stretching off during a exercise. These stretches involves holding of the muscles for a while until its untightens, then stretch it again at a high level. This stretch is usually performed three times over.
Lowering of Pulse
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
This type of cool down is specially used for strengthening muscles and joint and also improved their range of movement that is based on static stretching. The target muscle group is stretched to almost their limit. The muscle is relaxed while another participant stretches it to its highest limit of range of movement.