IPS Study Guide

Sections 4.9 - 4.10

Gas Dissolved In Our Atmosphere

  1. Gases that create an acidic solution:

  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Sulfur Dioxide
  • Hydrogen Chloride

2. Carbonic Acid- dissolved Carbon Dioxide

3. Sulfur Dioxide- "acid rain"

Sulfur Dioxide:

  • volcanoes
  • industrial pollution

"acid rain":

  • kill forest
  • pollute water (river, lake, pond)

Sinkholes and Limestone


  • soft
  • porous (holds water)
  • water soluble (carbonic acid)


  • common in Florida because there is a lot of limestone underground
  • was covered by ocean in the past

Study the Box Questions

Sulfuric Acid Notes

Sulfuric Acid

  • discovered in the 8th century by Alchemist
  • Alchemist - Alchemy "Chemistry"


  • lead acid batteries (cars)
  • fertilizers
  • steel industry - prevents rust corrosion
  • dried fruit production (hydrotropic)

Two Gases Post Lab

  • the hydrogen comes from the magnesium and acid
  • the carbon dioxide comes from magnesium and carbonic acid
  • carbon dioxide is a dense - sinks
  • hydrogen is a light gas - rises


  • gas is ignited and rushes out of the test tube
  • it rubs against the glass which causes friction (sound)


  • not waiting 30 seconds
  • unstopper before inverting
  • break surface water with test tube
  • don't collect full test tube of gas
  • air bubble in test tube
  • stoppers not tight
  • not keeping test tubes vertical

Study the FRAES

FRAE Facts

  1. Permanent Marker
  • alcohol/oil based
  • not soluble in water

2. Watercolor

  • water based
  • soluble in water


Phenol Red

  • Ph indicator
  • red - basic
  • clear - acidic

Acidification Post Lab

  • Phenol red changes color as you add carbon dioxide into water
  • the carbon dioxide turns to carbonic acid lowering the ph of the water
  • the calcium tablet is more soluble in the cup with the straw
  • because the carbonic acid lowers ph and dissolves calcium faster


  • not enough phenol red
  • dont bubble water long enough
  • 2 cups don't have same amount of water

Ocean Acidification

  • Normal Ocean pH is 8.1-84
  • Ocean's pH has decreased 0.1 (about 25% down)
  • Lower ocean pH means sea animals with shells will not be able to make a shell.