Architectural Style in Housing

Maddie Humelsine

Architectural Terminology

Arch

a curved masonry construction for spanning an opening, consisting of a number of wedge like stones, bricks, or the like, set with the narrower side toward the opening in such a way that forces on the arch are transmitted as vertical or oblique stresses on either side of the opening.

Brackets

A support, as of metal or wood, projecting from a wall or the like to hold or bear the weight of a shelf, part of a cornice, etc.

Buttress

Any external prop or support built to steady a structure by opposing its outward thrusts, especially a projecting support built into or against the outside of a masonry wall.

Chair Rail

A molding on a interior wall for preventing the backs of chairs from rubbing against plaster.

Chimney

A structure, usually vertical, containing a passage or flue by which the smoke, gases, etc., of a fire or furnace are carried off and by means of which a draft is created.

Column

A decorative pillar most often composed of stone and typically having a cylindrical or polygonal shaft with a capital and usually a base.

Column Capital

The uppermost member of a column or pilaster crowning the shaft and taking the weight of the entablature

Corbel

Any bracket, especially one of brick or stone, usually of slight extent.

Cupola

A light structure on a dome or roof, serving as a belfry, lantern, or belvedere.

Dormer

Also called dormer window. A vertical window in a projection built out from a sloping roof.

Eaves

The overhanging lower edge of a roof.

FaÇade

The front of a building, especially an imposing or decorative one.

Fanlight

A window over a door or another window, especially one having the form of a semicircle or of half an ellipse.

Finial

A relatively small, ornamental, terminal feature at the top of a gable, pinnacle, etc.

Floor plan

A diagram of one room, apartment, or entire floor of a building, usually drawn to scale.

Fluting

Something having ornamental grooves, as a Greek column.

Frieze

Any decorative band on an outside wall, broader than a stringcourse and bearing lettering, sculpture, etc.

Lintel

A horizontal architectural member supporting the weight above an opening, s a window or door.

Masonry

Work constructed by a mason, especially stonework.

Molding

A strip of contoured wood or other material placed just below the juncture of a wall and a ceiling.

Mullions

A vertical member, as of stone or wood, between the lights of a window, the panels in wainscoting, or the like.

Parapet

A defensive wall or elevation, as of earth or stone, in a fortification.

Pediment

(in classical architecture) A low gable, typically triangular with a horizontal cornice and raking cornices, surmounting a colonnade, an end wall, or a major division of a façade.

Pendant

A hanging electrical lighting fixture; chandelier.

Pilaster

A shallow rectangular feature projecting from a wall, having a capital and base and usually imitating the form of a column.

Pillar

An upright shaft or structure, of stone, brick, or other material, relatively slender in proportion to its height, and of any shape in section, used as a building support, or standing alone, a for a monument.

Porch

An exterior appendage to a building, forming a covered approach or vestibule to a doorway.

Portico

A structure consisting of a roof supported by columns or piers, usually attached to a building as a porch.

Quoins

An external solid angle of a wall or the like.

Rafters

Any of a series of timbers or the like, usually having a pronounced slope, for supporting the sheathing and covering of a roof.

Roof

An external upper covering of a house or other building.

Sill

The horizontal piece or member beneath a window, door, or other opening.

Stoop

A small staircase ending in a platform and leading to the entrance of an apartment building or other building.

Stucco

An exterior finish for masonry or frame walls, usually composed of cement, sand, and hydrated lime mixed with water and laid on wet.

Tower

A building or structure high in proportion to its lateral dimensions, either isolated or forming part of a building.

Transom Light

A crosspiece separating a door or the like from a window or fanlight above it.

Wainscot

Wood, especially oak and usually in the form of paneling, for lining interior walls.