13 Colonies Top Ten

Shri Karri, Furnish-2

1-Jamestown

  1. established by Virginia Company of London (joint-stock company): the colony was governed with a charter.
  2. 1st permanent British colony in North America: renewed efforts of British colonization after the failure of Roanoke.
  3. established in 1607: marks the beginning of Britain's successful colonization period.
  4. the first settlers were all male looking to make a fortune from gold: this was a very obtuse move. An all male colony without a proper direction or families to repopulate.
  5. all of the first settlers died because of the swampy climate and poor survival skills (disorganized): The climate and geography of Virginia was not a very hospitable one.
  6. John Smith saved the failing colony by organizing the settlers to focus on food and survival not gold.: "he who shall not work shall not eat" phrase came up. And the disorganized colony could finally survive.
  7. "Starving Time" ensued in 1609 when John Smith left back to england: Only 40 survivors remained. Native-Colonist relations got tense. When they were going back, De La Warr came and forced them back.
  8. Two "Anglo-Powhatan" wars fought before peace was established by the marriage of Rolfe and Pocahontas: shaky relations which soon collapsed.
  9. Plantation Economy based off of tobacco. The system was perfected by Rolfe: became the 'american gold' and the basis of most future colonies.
  10. "House of Burgesses" established: first form of self government in the colonies.(based off of charter)


2-Maryland

  1. Established by Lord Baltimore: The king gave a land lord New World land off very liberally.
  2. First proprietor colony owned by single individual not by joint stock company: the proprietor could establish his own system of organization in the colony.
  3. First settlement established in St.Mary in 1634: One of the biggest towns in Maryland.(marks the beginning of the colony)
  4. created as a haven for Catholics escaping prosecution in England and other colonies: Religious views of the majority of the colony shown here.
  5. Act of Toleration granted toleration for all christian sects: The catholics expected to be outnumbered by Puritans and decided to prevent any future persecution.
  6. Lord Baltimore gave special privileges to Catholic Settlers (land): incentive to bring more Catholics in.
  7. exported Tobacco: another plantation based colony. Means that they were highly dependent on trade with other colonies.
  8. sheltered more Roman Catholics than any other English-speaking colony: became the major immigration site for oppressed Catholics.
  9. Majority were protestant: Shows how tolerant Maryland was to Christian Sects.
  10. had a feudalist system: Baltimore decided to invite a few of his friends and his servants. The system represented an older version of european feudalism.


3-Pennsylvania

  1. Established in 1681 by William Penn: the date of establishment gives a good idea of when during the age of colonization the colony was made and also what was the environment in Europe at that time.
  2. Quaker; emphasized peace and toleration for everyone: explains why everyone who was persecuted, and Natives who were defeated came here.
  3. relations with Native Americans were good until Scottish immigrants ruined it: The english (especially the Quakers) were better with Native relations than other country's colonists.
  4. liberal with representative assembly: had a government very similar to our present one.
  5. freedom of worship granted to all: Most different from the other colonies for this reason.
  6. most diverse colony since it attracted all types of people: became the first "Melting Pot" of the colonies mainly for its lax policies.
  7. no military: friendly to Natives. Must have relied on other colonies for protection.
  8. began to export grain and the population boomed (rivaled only by Virginia and Massachusetts): Also became a plantation colony but rice was more of an exotic crop back in england.
  9. Against enslavement of africans: The plantations couldn't be worked by this cheap labor.
  10. relatively wealthy because they had no State Church to fund: Showed disassociation with the religious beliefs of the other colonies.


4-Georgia

  1. Last of the 13 colonies established in 1733: close to the end of Britain's golden age of colonization in the New World
  2. founded by James Oglethorpe (British Parliamentarian): seeing that he was a British Parliamentarian might provide interesting information during the build up to the Revolution.
  3. buffer colony between the Carolinians and the Spanish in Florida: most unique purpose out of all the colonies.
  4. haven for debtors: though the buffer colony had a harsh environment, the debtors being tortured in Britain were happy to relocate.
  5. main exports became silk and wine: less of a plantation crop which meant more land to distribute. Also the choice of crops established trade relations with West Indies.
  6. only colony to receive subsidies from Britain: And incentive for colonists to go live in a harsh colony.
  7. determined to keep slavery out: This stunted the growth compared to other colonies since the crops had very few workers.
  8. all christians but catholics tolerated: a purely Puritan established colony.
  9. methodist church founded here by john wesley: the colony had such religious tolerance for non-catholics that another sect could be founded.
  10. slow population growth due to spanish attacks and bad soil: bad soil also slowed the crop productions and continued Spanish attacks and raids stunted development.


5-Massachusetts Bay

  1. Founded by John Winthrop and John Endecott (1620): The founders are always important to get information about the political and social views of a colony.
  2. Founded for Religious freedom of Puritans and colonized by Separatists: People who were not pleased by the Church of England and its practices formed this colony which explains its strict society.
  3. Was a charter government but then became a royal colony: especially for a colony that came to the New World because it was displeased with England this is very ironic.
  4. Salem, Boston, and Plymouth major settlements: The growth in population and development allowed for multiple 'Towns' to be founded.
  5. cold climate, less disease, rocky soil, few rivers: perfect climate to suit the new colonists and grow staple crops.
  6. economy based off of fishing and manufacturing: not a plantation colony. The location off the bay area made this possible.
  7. shaky ties with england due to religious tolerance: when the colony became a royal colony that caused a lot of unrest.
  8. John Winthrop ruled for 15 years: he became one of the most significant rulers of Massachusetts bay.
  9. Winthrop's goal was to make the society the perfect Christian society. "city on a hill": this was a very famous rally slogan to unify the colonists against the Anglican Church and to make them the 'savior' for all Christians.
  10. Anne Hutchinson, and Roger Williams exiled: this explains the the low tolerance and close-mindedness of the society. Audacity was not appreciated.