Decolonization

Brooke C., Lauren P., Taylor P. 1st

Indian Decolonization

  • The Indian National Congress was mainly HIndu and worked to give the Indians more freedom from their colonial rulers.
  • The Muslim League worked towards the same goals of freedom but was mainly aimed at Islam.
  • The Amritsar massacre pushed the independence movement further because it killed many Indians, regardless of their religion.
  • Mohandas Gandhi was an influential figure in the independence movement, he used peaceful resistance to create national unity.
  • However there were still problems between the Muslim and Hindu people, so once India gained freedom the Muslims created Pakistan.
  • After freedom from the British, the Hindus and Muslims began fighting against each other which led to another movement by Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
  • The two countries still have conflict today about the differences in beliefs.
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African Decolonization

  • South Africa became its own colony with the white Africans ruling over their land, and the black Africans had few rights. To help combat British control, the African National Congress (ANC) was created.
  • Many nations along the Mediterranean became free after Gamal Nesser encouraged other Islamic nations to become independent as well.
  • Below the Sahara, very few Africans were well educated or skilled. Also European boundaries made it difficult to establish a strong country.
  • Many other countries including Algeria, Ghana, Kenya, Belgian Congo, etc. fought for their independence from European powers. Although they were now a part of the African Union, they weren't always promised stability.
  • Africa's resourceful land keeps other powers invested in its countries.
  • Violent conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi groups in Rwanda led to the genocide of the Tutsi population, and millions of Hutu refugees.
  • As South Africa gained its independence, a strong apartheid was created banning blacks from certain jobs and lands.
  • However, because of Nelson Mandela, ANC, and many methods of protests, South Africa ended the apartheid and elected Mandela as their president.
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Middle Eastern Decolonization

  • The remaining territory of the Ottoman Empire was put under French and British control.
  • Many Jewish people had fled their homeland of Israel in the time before decolonization.
  • Jewish supporters, or nationalists, told the British government that Jewish people needed a home in Palestine (once Israel). Britain gained control of Palestine and was able to give Jews a home in Palestine with the Balfour Declaration of 1917.
  • The declaration cause trouble between the Jews and the Palestinians who both claimed the land.
  • Once given an official Jewish state, Arab nations attacked but were defeated and Palestinians had no home.
  • These two groups have fighting over this land since because it holds religious importance.
  • A wall was built between the two groups and the international community created a plan for peace in the region.
  • Division inside Palestinian makes peace even harder to achieve.
  • Israel also has trouble with Lebanon and Syria on their border.
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