Biology and stuff
1. A. What is sustainable living? B. How could someone achieve sustainable living? C. Do you personally think you could reach sustainable living?
B. They could use less electricity, drive less, and waste less things.
C. Yes, I could drive an electric car and use solar power for my house.
2. Fossil fuels vs Renewable energy- compare and contrast the two forms of energy. Look at the cost financially to humans and environmentally to the Earth. Convince someone to conserve energy.
- Damages environment
- Costs 26.89 cents per kwh
- Releases 57% of the world's greenhouse gasses
- Doesn't damage the environment
- Costs 21 cents per kwh
- Hydropower might hurt rivers
You should use renewable energy so you don't kill Earth. It is also slightly less expensive.
3. A. What does it mean to recycle? B. Why should someone recycle? C. How long does it take for these to decompose (a-j)? D. Did any of these surprise me?
B. People should recycle so that we don't use up any more of Earth's resources.
C. Time of decomposition for the following objects:
a. Tin Can: 50 years
b. Glass Bottle: 1 to 2 million
c. Disposable Diaper: 550 years
d. Wood: 10 to 15 years
e. Paper: 2 to 6 weeks
f. Plastic Grocery Bag: 20 to 100 years
g. Styrofoam Cup: 1 million years
h. Aluminum Can: 200 to 500 years
i. Cotton T-shirt: 5 months
j. Apple Core: 2 months
D. Lots of these surprised me. I didn't think that manufactured containers took so long to biodegrade. I can't believe that some of these things won't biodegrade until after 1 million years!
4. A. What is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch? B. What can we do here in Iowa to help decrease it, is it even possible?
B. We could help keep the patch from growing but we can't make it smaller ourselves. To make it smaller we would have to scoop it out while actually there.
5. Define two Biomes of the world, define an ecosystem found in each and explain the Biotic and Abiotic factors involved.
Desert - a biome in which the land gets very little precipitation
Rain Forest - a biome in which there are large canopy trees and lots of precipitation
Desert Ecosystem: Oasis
Rain Forest Ecosystem: Rain Forest Floor
Biotic Factors: plants- palm trees, cacti, and shrubs can all survive at the oasis; animals- many animals can survive off of the plants and animals that congregate at oases
Abiotic Factors: the heat- the intense heat of the desert can make it hard to live; the water- the water from the oasis attracts animals; the sand- the sandy ground can give homes to burrowing creatures
Rain Forest Floor-
Biotic Factors: plants- the rain forest is home to many different species of plants; animals- a wide variety of animals can live in the rainforest due to the abundance of food
Abiotic Factors: the rainfall- due to all of the rainfall there are lots of plants and animals; the warm temperature- the warm and moist conditions help give the rain forest perfect conditions for all of the plants; the ground- the soft ground makes a good place for burrowing animals to live
6. Rain Forest Food Chain
Primary Producer: Grass
Primary Consumer: Insects, Birds
Secondary Consumer: Birds, Owl
Tertiary Consumer: Owl, Lynx
Quaternary Consumer: Lynx
Herbivore: Insects, Birds
Carnivore: Owl, Lynx
7. A. What are Dead Zones in the Gulf of Mexico? B. What Causes this situation? C. What can be done to help stop them?
B. This phenomenon is caused by all of the nitrates and phosphates in the fertilizers that get washed into the Mississippi River and then into the Gulf of Mexico.
C. We should use less fertilizers and maybe artificially dissolve more oxygen into the water.
8. Define Keystone Species, give 2 examples; one a top predator and one not a top predator. Explain how their absence would affect the ecosystem.
Grass - in the grasslands, grass is a keystone species. Without the grass none of the grazing animals would have food and thy would die out. Then the predators would start to die out.
Lions - lions are also a keystone species. Without lions the grazers would over populate and kill all the grass.
9. What is competitive Exclusive - define it and give 2 examples.
Example - since lions and cheetahs compete for food, one day one of them will go extinct.
Example - since lions and hyenas compete for food, one of them will eventually go extinct.
10. Define the following terms and give 2 examples of each.
i. Gazelles and Zebras share the grass they eat.
ii. Fish share the resources hey need to survive.
b. Parasites - a parasite is an organism that feeds off its host without killing it.
i. Ticks - they feed on the blood of the host
ii. Mosquitos - they also feed on the blood of the host
c. Mimicry - the close resemblance of an animal or plant to another animal, plant, or inanimate object
i. Imitation Hornets - they aren't really hornets but they look like they are
ii. Rock Crabs - they look like rocks
d. Mutualism - symbiosis that is beneficial to both organisms involved
i. Bee and flower - bees gather nectar to feed them selves but also spread pollen as they fly from flower to flower
ii. Humans and bacteria - there are bacteria that live inside human's (and other animal's) intestines. Humans can't digest everything they eat so they bacteria partially digest what we can't.
e. Commensalism - a symbiosis that benefits one organism without affecting the other
i. Barnacles and whale - Barnacles attach to whales to be where food is, doesn't affect the whale
ii. Orchids and tree - Orchids grow on trees to protect them from being eaten, doesn't affect the tree
12. A. What is global dimming? B. Where does it usually affect and why is it a problem?
B. It has a greater affect in cities that are polluted, and it is a problem because if it gets to bad then the earth will get really cold.
13. A. Explain the Greenhouse Effect. B. How do the carbon cycle and greenhouse effect go together?
B. The Carbon Cycle helps to get rid of carbon dioxide, a primary greenhouse gas, in the atmosphere, which would help to get rid of the greenhouse effect.
14. A. Define endangered species and give an example. B. How does a species become endangered? C. What if this species was a keystone species? What would happen to the current ecosystem? D. Why should humans care about the endangered species?
B. A species can become extinct from over hunting or if their ecosystem goes through a dramatic change.
C. If it was a keystone species, the ecosystem would be greatly affected.
D. We should care about endangered species because if they go extinct they will never be back, and most endangered species are valuable.
15. Invasive Species- define invasive species; give 2 examples how do they affect the ecosystem they are now invasive to. How did the invasive species arrive to their new ecosytem?
i. Feral dogs in Asia disrupt the ecosystem by disrupting the food chain. The dogs hunt and leave less food for the native predators. They got to Asia by migrating because of climate changes.
ii. Pharaoh ants in North America affect their ecosystem by excluding all other insect life in a nearby area. They overproduce rapidly and kill off many other bugs. They got to North America because they were accidentally carried over an airline.
16. A. Why should a person care about the lost rainforest ground? B. Why are rain forests being cut down? What would happen if they all disappeared?
B. We are cutting them down to make room for farming and to get lumber.
C. If they were all cut down global warming would be a lot more intense.
17. A. Why is human overpopulation a major concern? B. Explain all the resources needed for a human to sustain life.
B. For a human to live he or she would need food, water, shelter, and oxygen.
18. Pesticides- A. What are they? B. How do they adversely affect the environment? C. How does this create problems with the genetic diversity in crop production?
B. Pesticides could harm plants and the animals that eat those plants because essentially if you eat pesticides you are eating poison.
C. If we genetically engineer one type of corn because it is less likely to get eaten by bugs, all of that corn would be the same, which means it could all get killed by the same disease.