Impact of DR-TA and Questioning
on Comprehension and Reading Attitude of 1st Grade Students
The Research Question: How Does the Use of Questioning During a Directed Reading-Thinking Activity Impact Comprehension and Reading Attitude of First Grade Students?
The Reason Behind this Topic
The Nuts and Bolts
The What: Comprehension and Reading Attitude
The Where: Two first grade classrooms in a traditional Title 1 K-5 elementary school in eastern North Carolina
The Why: To see if the use of questioning in a DR-TA framework would increase comprehension and reading attitudes of first grade students over traditional instruction using basal readers
The When: Intervention occurred over a 6 week time frame (January 19th through February 27th, 2015). Two additional weeks (January 7th-16th and March 2nd-6th) were utilized to gather pre and post data.
The How: The researcher (intervention class) provided questioning along a Comprehension Continuum designed by Harvey and Daniels within a DR-TA framework (created by Stauffer in 1969) using basal reader selections during whole group comprehension.
Pretest- Middle of the Year (MOY) TRC scores in Reading 3D (Wireless Generation) and Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (McKenna and Kear, 1990).
Posttest- Progress Monitoring (6 week mark) TRC scores in Reading 3D and Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (McKenna and Kear, 1990)
Researcher Log- used to record observations and reflections of intervention on student outcome.
- Before Reading: Students would make predictions about the text from hearing and seeing the title. Responses were recorded on chart paper to be referred to throughout the lesson.
- During Reading: Predictions made before reading text would be confirmed or revised. The teacher/researcher would stop at predetermined points throughout the text to ask questions about the text, using the question starters in the Comprehension Continuum created by Harvey & Daniels (cited in Harvey & Goudvis, 2013). The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model provided the necessary scaffolding for students.
- After Reading: The teacher/researcher would revisit the predictions made at the beginning of the text with the students and discuss accuracy of predictions. The teacher/researcher would also ask students how this text connected to another text, their own life, or to something in the world as well as why they thought the author wrote this text.
- Did questioning using the Comprehension Continuum impact student comprehension? Results did not indicate that the intervention group (students who received the questioning within the Comprehension Continuum) performed higher than the students in the comparison group (students who only received the basal reader questioning). However a large effect size was determined for reading comprehension.
- Did the intervention impact student attitude toward reading? Results indicated an overall negative reaction to the intervention; however, the observations recorded within the researcher log were inconsistent with the data results on student attitude toward reading.
-high effect size on the intervention group
-increased quality of student responses
-increased responses from below grade level readers
-growing awareness of predictions and their importance to text
Future Directions for Research
-increase the amount of time for the study
-change the study to the beginning to mid point of the year
-use of trade books instead of basal reader selections
Resources for Educators and Parents
Video on the DR-TAhttp://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/drta
Article on DR-TA and Questioning (requires a JSTOR account)
Justification for the Use of Questioning
Article on Comprehension
QUESTION STARTERS USED DURING INTERVENTION:
Comprehension Continuum- question starters handout used in intervention
HOW-TO GUIDES TO INCORPORATE WITH YOUR STUDENTS OR CHILDREN:
Link to a Lesson Plan
This is a website geared to self-questioning. It contains a presentation for educators (and parents too) on how to present the self-questioning strategy to students.
Another great website... It originated in Australia but incorporates different comprehension strategies that can be utilized here as well!
This website contains a video of questioning in action for families to use at home. While this is geared toward the summer break, it can be used at any point of the year.
One more website... Contains self-questioning strategies that are geared to students with learning disabilities but could actually be applied to ALL students. Includes "fix-up" strategies for students to use during the reading process.
activity. The Reading Teacher, 41(6), 526-533
Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2013). Comprehension at the core. The Reading Teacher, 66(6), 432-439. Retrieved from: doi: 10.1002/TRTR.1145
Stauffer, R.G. (1969). Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. New York: Harper & Row