Chapter 3: RTI Models

from Pyramid Response to Intervention

Two Systems of Implementation

There are two systems that all RTI models fall under. The first is called the "Protocol System." In this system schools use one program school wide for addressing learning deficiencies .The schools using this system have interventionists that address the student needs. The second system is called the "Problem-Solving System." In this system students are given individualized plans. Staff members identify interventions to use with students and their unique needs. "RTI systems differ in terms of who is responsible for implementing interventions at each tier and in the nature and number of steps researchers recommend for implementation, from 4 to 10" (Buffum, Mattos, Weber, 2009, pgs. 30-31). All RTI systems hope that students will respond to the core instruction that occurs at Tier 1, the additional interventions at Tier 2, or the intensive interventions at Tier 3 without having to refer students for special education eligibility.


Specific RTI models used across the country

TLC Model (used in a large suburban district south of Los Angeles)

TLC stands for Teaming for the Learning of all Children. This is an RTI program in which a team of specialists visits every grade level throughout the day to provide differentiated reading intervention to small groups of students. "A goal of TLC, which resembles inclusion models from the 1990s, is to reduce referrals to special education" (Buffum, Mattos, Weber, 2009, pg. 35). Perks for this model include: students get individualized instruction based on their needs, core and supplementary instruction is delivered by highly trained professionals, at risk learners (even students with IEPs) get interventions in the regular classroom, small group instructions is provided for learners whenever possible, and the most at risk students are put in classrooms with the lowest student-teacher ratio during leveled instructional times. The largest obstacle with this model is scheduling. Teachers and students have to have time to work in small groups so that leveled instruction can take place. Teachers also have to have ongoing staff development and time has to be provided for teachers to give assessments and analyze the results.


Scan the QR code or follow the padlet link for more about the TLC model.

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ExCEL (Excellence:A Commitment to Every Learner...started in a school district in southern California)

"ExCEL attempts to assist all students, whether they are high achieving, struggling, or in between" (Buffum, Mattos, Weber, 2009, pg 36). The top goal of this model it to provide all students access to high-quality core instruction. Groups are fluid, progess monitoring happens often, and the expectations for all students are high. the ExCEL model won several honors in its first 10 years of implementation, and now educators from the program train other teachers across the country.


CAST (Collaborative Academic Support Teams... implemented in a large district in northern California)

The CAST program is made of up teams consisting of the principal, resource teacher, psychologist, reading specialist, speech pathologist, and the classroom teacher. The team meets regularly to discuss concerns brought forth about the student. The regular classroom teacher uses small group instruction to address learning gaps. Specialists support the classroom teacher by giving students targeted instruction for needs in fluency or decoding. Students that have severe needs are placed in Tier 3 support where they get assistance from the classroom teacher and all types of specialists. The school that implemented this RTI model had reading scores in the 20th percentile and after implementation the scores rose to the 60th percentile.


Follow the link to a presentation used by a school that implements the CAST model:

http://www.ocde.us/PBIS/Documents/RtI%20Conference%202012/B6%20PP-CAST%20Presentation%20March%202012.pdf

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HAEA Model (Heartland Area Education Agency, group of school districts in Iowa)

These school districts in Iowa realized that teachers were differentiating and individualize instruction as best as the could, but referrals for formal evaluation for special education were still increasing. The group decided to develop a system that "more systemically provided targeted academic support to students" (Buffum, Mattos, Weber, 2009, pg. 39). HAEA educators use diagnostic instruments to assess deficiencies and prescribe a specific plan of action. The main goal is to investigate the difficulty the student is having until the exact cause of the problem is identified. Once the problem is identified the key elements of RTI (diagnose, prescribe, measure, monitor, adjust) are put into place. HAEA educators view RTI as their "delivery model" for No Child Left Behind (Buffum, Mattos, Weber, 2009, pg. 40).


Follow the link to read more about HAEA: http://www.heartlandaea.org



The Washington Model (model started in Washington State and is now used in several states)

RTI systems vary across districts in Washington, but they all have seven core principles: use all school resources to help all students learn, use research-based programs and instruction, focus on the core program, universally screen students so that none fall through the cracks, use multilayered approach to meeting student needs, use data to drive decision making, and monitor progress often (Buffum, Mattos, Weber, 2009). Just like on all the other RTI models, the goal of the Washington Model is to get students the targeted interventions they need as soon as a need arises and to reduce unneeded referrals to special education.


Follow this link to learn more about RTI in Washington:

http://www.k12.wa.us/Rti/default.aspx


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