Case Study

By: Laura Herrera and McKenzie Melane

The Case of Benjamin Botten

In the case of Benjamin Botten, the Lysosomes are most likely the organelle that is getting targeted.

First of all, the case stated that Benjamin had a high amount of lipids and polysaccharides in his body, and that was unable to digest those molecules. The lysosomes function is to digest old worn out cell parts, such as those molecules. Without them, those molecules will build up, and the body wont be able to break them down. This missing explains why Benjamin has a high build up of those molecules.

Secondly, the case also stated that his joints had active bone decay, and had acid build up in the joints. Lysosomes are responsible for breaking down waste in the body. Without them, there wouldn't be any enzymes to break down those wastes and it would eventually build up. This explains why Benjamin has active bone decay.

Third, the case study stated as well that the organelle that was missing from Benjamin's body was 0.5-1.5 microns big. Lysosomes happen to be that size, which is another reason why the Lysosomes are the organelle being targeted.

Finally, we knew it was the lysosomes being targeted because we ruled out the possibilities of it being:

- The Endoplasmic Reticulum because the E.R.'s function is to transport proteins, make lipids, and also to provide a framework for the cell. .

- The Cytoskeleton because its function is provide the shape of the cell and to help the cell maintain its shape.

We also ruled out the possibility of it being other organelles because the Lysosome is the only organelle thats function is to digest different things in out body along with the other reasons listed above. For these reasons, we knew it could have been none other than the Lysosome being targeted.

The Case of Olivia Kalie

In the case of Olivia Kalie, the organelle that is most likely getting targeted is the Mitochondria.

First, the case states that Olivia had a high glucose level and that something wasnt breaking down the sugar molecules in her body. One of the Mitochondria's function is to break down the sugar molecules in our bodies. It breaks down those sugar molecules to make energy (ATP) for our body. Without the Mitochondria, the body wouldn't have anything to break down all the glucose, and since there wouldn't be anything breaking down all those sugars, the amount of glucose would keep building up. This explains why Olivia has such high glucose levels in her body.

Second, the case also states that Mary has extreme muscle weakness, loss of muscle coordination, and that she doesn't have a lot of energy to do anything. The Mitochondria is is the main source of energy in the cell and it is where energy is made. As we said before, the mitochondria breaks down sugar molecules to make energy. If the Mitochondria didn't exist, there wouldn't be anything to break down sugar molecules. If the sugarmolecules weren't getting broken down, then no energy (ATP) would be getting made. If no energy (ATP) was being made, then there would be no energy in the body, which would explain why Olivia feels so exhausted.

Third, the doctor saw that there was decreased actuvity for the enzyme c oxidase. The Mitochondria is where the respiratory electron transport chain is located. The enzyme c oxidase is the last enzyme in this chain. If there wasn't a mitochondria, then there wouldn't be a electron transport chain at all, so the enzyme c oxidase wouldn't have any use. This explains why there is decreased activity for the enzyme c oxidase in Mary's body.

Finally, we knew it was the Mitochondria being targeted because we ruled out the possibilities of it being:

-The Chloroplast because although it provides energy, it is only found in plant cells, not animal

- The Lysosomes, because although it breaks down food particles and old worn out cell parts, it doesn't break down glucose to make energy

We also ruled out the possibility of it being any other organelle because the Mitochondria is the only organelle that provides the main source of energy in the cell, and it is the only organelle that breaks down sugar molecules to turn it into energy. For these reasons, we knew that the organelle that was being targeted was the Mitochondria.

The Case of Frank Rentz

In the case of Frank Rentz, the Lysosomes is most likely the organelle getting targeted.

First, the case stated that Frank wasn't able to digest his food. One of the functions of the Lysosome is to break down food particles. It can break down food because the Lysosomes have enzymes that break down those food. If there wasn't any Lysosomes, then the body not being able to digest food, which explains why Frank cant digest the food he eats.

Second, the case also stated that his body want able to produce the needed enzymes into the intestinal cavity, Lysosomes have digestive enzymes that break down those food particles. If there wasn't any lysosomes, then there wouldn't be any digestive enzymes being produced which is needed to digest food. If there wasn't any digestive enzymes, then the body wouldn't be able to digest food. This would once again explain why Frank isn't able to digest food.

Finally, we knew the Lysosomes were being targeted once again because we ruled out the possibilities of it being:

-The Golgi Apparatus because it function is to package and sort proteins

-The Nucleus, although it controls everything in the cell, its specific function isn't to digest the food we eat

-The Mitochondria because although it breaks down glucose, it doesn't have digestive enzymes that break down the food in our body, and makes us able to digest

We also ruled out it being any other organelle because there isn't another organelle that has digestive enzymes in it to break down/digest the food we eat. For these reasons, we knew that the organelle being targeted was the Lysosomes.

The Case of Mary Streaver

In the case of Mary Streaver, the organelle that we have discovered is most likely getting targeted is the Peroxisome.

First of all, the case study stated that Mary had a high amount of fatty acids in the blood, and that they weren't being properly metabolized. The Peroxisome is responsible for breaking down those fatty acid molecules. Without peroxisomes, the fatty acids would build up, and would eventually lead to a high amount of fatty acids. This explains why Mary has such a high amount of fatty acids in her body. Along with that, the peroxisome is also responsible for metabolizing the fatty acids. Without peroxisomes, the fatty acids wouldn't be properly metabolized, which explains why the fatty acids aren't getting metabolized properly in Mary's body.

Second, the case also stated that there was a high amount of oxidative enzymes in the blood, like catalase and D- Amino acid oxidase. One of the Peroxisome's function is to control the amount of Catalase and D-Amino Acid oxidase in the body. Without it, there wouldn't be anything to control the levels of Catalase and D-amnio acid oxidase, so the body would eventually get high amounts of both of these things. This explains why Mary has this symptom. In addition to this, having a high amount of catalase and D-amino acid can also make uric acid to build up. This explains why there is a high amount of uric acid oxidase in her body as well.

Third, the case also stated that there was gout in the joints of her hands and feet. As we mentioned before, without peroxisomes, the body starts getting a high amount of of uric acid. When there is a high level of uric acid, it can lead to gout. Since Mary had a high amount of uric acid in her body because of the lack of the peroxisome, it lead to her having gout in her joints of her hands and feet.

Fourth, the case stated that the organelle that was missing from her body was 0.5 microns in diameter. Peroxisomes, happen to be exactly that same size in diameter, which is another reason why it is the Peroxisome being targeted.

Finally, we knew it was the Peroxisomes being targeted because we ruled out the possibilities of it being:

-The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum because its function id to produce lipids, not break down fatty acids

-The Golgi Apparatus because its function is to transfer lipids, and also its diameter is bigger than 0.5microns

We also ruled out it being any of the other organelles because the Peroxisome is the only organelle whose function is to metabolize fatty acids and control the amount of Catalase and D-amino acid oxidase in the body. For these reasons, we knew it couldn't have been none other than the Peroxisome being targeted.

Is One Organelle More Important than the Other?

We don't believe that one organelle is more important than the rest. We don't believe one organelle is more important than the rest because each organelle plays an important role in how we function. If you were to take one of organelle located in out body out, we wouldn't be able to function properly because each organelle effects another organelle. If one organelle were to disappear, then that would effect another organelle, and that effects another organelle, and that effects another organelle, and that effects another organelle, etc.

For example, if the Endoplasmic Reticulum disappeared, the Golgi Apparatus wouldn't b be able to function because it wouldn't have received the lipids and proteins for the ER. If it didn't revive the lipids and proteins, then it wouldn't be able to transfer them. This would effect our whole body because proteins and lipids are important to our body, because without them, we would die.

In the end, we need every single organelle in our body or else we wouldn'tbe able to function, and we would eventually die. Each organelle plays a key role on how we function and one isn't more important than the other because we would be greatly effected if any random organelle were to disappear. For these reasons we believe that one organelle is not more important than the other.

*Websites Used*

"Animal Cell Structure." Animal Cell Structure. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2013.

"EXT Life Sciences." EXT Life Sciences. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2013.

Http://www.genome.gov/dmd/img.cfm?node=Photos/Graphics&id=85195, n.d. Web.

"The Mighty Mitochondria." AquaNew RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2013.

"Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Mitochondria." Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Mitochondria. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2013.

NCBI. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2013.