Blood

Alex Haas

Facts

How is blood useful in forensics? Blood is useful all throughout the forensics world for multiple things. Blood can be used to test for DNA evidence in a case which can lead to the conviction of the criminal. Also is can be trace evidence for jurors in the court during the testimony.

Why is it important? Blood is important because it can lead to the criminals conviction directly or can give slews to the criminal.

Famous case where blood was the "aha" evidence- The OJ Simpson case was an "aha" moment for blood analysis. After the case they tested the gloves and blood was proven to be able to shrink leather gloves which is why the gloves never fit him. Also there was unrecorded blood evidence through the scene which could've help convict him.

Definitions

Serology- the scientific study or diagnostic examination of blood serum, especially with regard to the response of the immune system to pathogens or introduced substances.

Plasma- the colorless fluid part of blood, lymph, or milk, in which corpuscles or fat globules are suspended.

Antibodies- An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

Antigens- a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.

Erythrocytes- a red blood cell that (in humans) is typically a biconcave disc without a nucleus. Erythrocytes contain the pigment hemoglobin, which imparts the red color to blood, and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues.

ABO- The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion.

Rh- Antigens are proteins on the surface of bloods cells that can cause a response from the immune system. The RH factor is a type of protein on the surface of red blood cells. Most people who have the RH factor are RH-positive.

Leukocytes- a colorless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in counteracting foreign substances and disease; a white (blood) cell. There are several types, all amoeboid cells with a nucleus, including lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages.

Platelets- Platelets are tiny blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. If one of your blood vessels gets damaged, it sends out signals that are picked up by platelets. The platelets then rush to the site of damage and form a plug, or clot, to repair the damage.

Hemoglobin- a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates. Its molecule comprises four subunits, each containing an iron atom bound to a heme group.

Blood Factors- II (prothrombin) Its active form (IIa) activates I, V, X, VII, VIII, XI, XIII, protein C, platelets. Prothrombin G20210A, Thrombophilia. III (tissue factor or tissue thromboplastin ) Co-factor of VIIa (formerly known as factor III)

Serum- an amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates