Sport and Exercise Psychology
Effects of personality, motivation and aggresion in sport
Personality is a combination of characteristics that make a person unique. There are two different types of personality that you can be. You can either be type A or type B. Type A and B can also be known as narrow band approach and this is just the same it just has got a different name to describe the theory.
Type A athletes have got a lack of patience so they basically cant get along with the people that don't work when they are part of a team. An athlete with a type A personality thrives to compete. Most of them are achieving which means that the goals that they have set for themselves they will complete because they know they will achieve something at the end. People that have a type A personality will want to complete the activities quickly. If they have got a time limit on a specific task then they will do more than one task at the same time so then they can complete the task quicker. They have a lack of tolerance towards those that don't work in a group. They need high levels of anxiety when doing different tasks. Type A athletes like to push themselves hard when trying to do a task or complete a task.
An example of someone who has a type A personality would be Usain Bolt. He has a type A personality because he is relaxed around others (e.g. When he has a competition he doesn't let the nerves show). Usain bolt is confident around the other athletes he doesn't show off exactly but he doesn't sit away from everyone and not talk to anyone. Usain bolt is very extroverted because he doesn't like to be on his own he would rather be with everyone before a race than sitting on his own. He puts himself into the position so that he knows he will win the race. He takes advantages of the other opponents weaknesses and uses that against them. He is not afraid to fail but he would prefer to win. Usain Bolt has got assertive aggression because he gets hyped up before he does a race.
There are also type B personalities. And athletes that have got this personality can put up with bad situations better because they are more tolerant towards others. Before an event the type B personalities will be more relaxed and clam about the situation. They won't be worrying about the event as much as a type A athlete would. An athlete like this will have lower levels of anxiety. A person who is a type B athlete will have a more creative mind and a better imagination which can help them if they have got to imagine the task that they are doing before they are doing it.
There are four different types of theories that go with personality and they are:
Ban dura - social learning theory.
Psychodynamic theory is that it is made up of the conscious and unconscious part of the mind. The conscious part of your mind is what you think of an example of this would be my friend Maddey Patterson. She occasionally over thinks moves at gymnastics that she is doing which then means that she pulls out from doing the move or she can cause herself more damage. The unconscious part of the mind is the things that you do without think of so it would be breathing and blinking. Maddey comes into this because in gymnastics she doesn't always have to think of everything that she does and example would be to keep her arms straight in a forward roll this is because it comes naturally to her now so she no longer has to think to do this task. ID is your instinctive drive and is in the unconscious part of the mind. EGO is in the conscious part of the mind so your EGO is basically how you think of something or someone. You have got a SUPER EGO and that is your moral conscience and you are worried about letting people down. This theory is good because it helps psychologists understand a person as a whole and not just part of their mind or part of them. The only problem with this theory is that not all behaviour is under conscious control.
Trait theory is a persons key characteristics or traits. You cannot practice these because you are born with them. It depends on how you have been raised because if you have been raised to always think before you do a task then you will do so. Also if you have been brought up in a team sport then you are more likely to be an extrovert than an introvert as you will get along with others easier than those that have been brought up in a sport where they have had to work alone. Hans Eysenck identified two separate dimensions of personality and they are stable/unstable and introvert/extrovert.
The interactional view is a theory that consist of situation trait theory to make the views work. This theory is helpful because it brings everything together and it is useful theory to use.
The bandura - social learning theory. This theory is something that you learn through experiences. So this means that if you have grown up around aggression then it means that you will be more aggressive towards others, this means that you will be better at a sport that needs you to get aggressive before you play or do the sport. If you are very relaxed then you will be more relaxed during the sport that they are doing or before they do the sport.
Some of the athletes that we see on the TV are doing their sport because they are driven to get the prize at the end whether it's money or a medal or just praise. Some young children that you see joining sports aren't just joining them because it's something new for them to try its because they have seen people on the TV do that sport and they are wanting to be like them when they are older. In sport you have got athletes that only do their sport for fun because it is their way of getting rid of the stress from work or other people.
There are three different types of motivation and they are:
Intrinsic motivation is someone internal reasons for wanting to do a certain sport, so it could be a persons interests or it could be that they just want to enjoy a sport. The people who are intrinsically motivated to do sport have higher levels of enjoyment, they are more likely to be better sportsmen/sportswoman also if someone is intrinsically motivated they are less likely to drop out of the sport that they are doing. They judge their success on their effort and how much they improve.
Extrinsic motivation is where you do a sport due to the rewards that you can get for example, money, trophies, praise. People that are like this will try hard in their sport because they are wanting to get the prize at the end of their competition.
Amotivation is where someone is not motivated to do the sport at all.
In my gymnastics there are gymnasts who just sit and don't join in with the rest of their team and this is because they are no longer motivated to do the sport anymore. The only thing is that they like the awards that they can get from the end of a competition so they are not only extrinsically motivated but they have amotivation too. These gymnasts are no longer intrinsically motivated to do well in their sport as they have grown up doing it and mustn't be all that interested in it until a competition comes along and then they become extrinsically motivated to do well because they know that they can achieve something from it all at the end. The motivation of these gymnasts depends on if they are intrinsic/ extrinsically motivated, if they are wanting to compete and how high their arousal levels are.
There are two different theories and they are:
Task orientation theory
Achievement motivation theory
Task orientation theory is your own preferred reasons for wanting to join in with sport. People that are part if this theory have got typical behaviours and they are that they work hard, want feedback, persistent and they give optional effort depending on what they are doing.
Achievement motivation theory was said by Atkinson in 1964. He said that there are two different types of people the NACH and NAF. If you are a NACH you need to achieve but if you are NAF you need to avoid failure. We have got both of these inside of us but depending on what you have more of depends on the way you behave towards others.
There are many different reasons for people to have aggression in sport and they are the ref, the crowd taunting, opposition, they have target players, being fouled, pressure of competition, poor performance, poor tactics and learning from role models. If someone is getting more frustrated then you can change from being assertion to aggression but if someone has more control then they can go from being aggressive to assertion.
Instinct theory is trait theory and it fits in with aggression because aggression is a natural response you cannot learn to be aggressive. This theory is useful because we know that all humans developed aggression as a survival instinct and that is why we use it now.
Hans Eysenck's theory is that he identified two dimensions that act within a individuals personality. the two dimensions are stable/ unstable and introvert/ extrovert. His theory states that if you are a stable introvert then you are more likely to be passive, thoughtful, controlled, reliable and calm.
Frustration aggression hypothesis is also known as interaction it's perspective. This hypothesis basically explains that frustration leads to aggression. People that fit into this theory feel like their goals are being blocked by other people stopping them from doing what they want. Their success follows then aggression leads to catharsis. The frustration aggression hypothesis shows that people have premeditated aggression. This type of aggression can be learnt from other people. Catharsis is the release of frustration which leads to a feeling of well-being, it literally means 'cleansing of the soul'. This is good because it is a release of stress in safer manor.
Bandura social learning theory is involved with aggression and this is because aggression during a sport can be learnt through observation of role models. And example of this would be when your watching the TV and the football comes on if a certain player acts a particular way then a young child starting football may act the same way and it is not acceptable from any players. Bandura means the imitation of aggression and reinforced by social acceptance. Bandura believed that personality is learnt through your experiences, observing those around you and using their behaviour.
The aggressive cues hypothesis is said by Berkowitz and they explained that for aggression to happen cues must be present. The stimuli are cues which are subconsciously linked to aggression. If you have frustration during sport it causes you to get angry and aroused and so readiness for aggression is caused.