U.S- The Rise of Industrialization

Megan Walsh

Andrew Carnegie- Rags to Riches

Who: The great steel industrialist Andrew Carnegie. He was born on November 25, 1835 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland, UK. He died on August 11, 1919 at the age of 83 in Lenox, Massachusetts. He was married to Louise Whitfield. They had one child named Margaret Carnegie Miller.

What: Andrew Carnegie grew up as an extremely poor man. He and his family emigrated to the United States from Dunfermline in 1848. Andrew started out as a telegrapher and by the 1860's he had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars, bridges and oil derricks. He built further wealth as a bond salesmen raising money for American Enterprise in Europe. He built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J.P Morgan in 1901 for 480 million, creating the U.S Steel Corporation. From the money he earned from his businesses, he founded the Carnegie Hall, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, and many more.

Where: The United States of America.

When: He was in the height of his steel career from 1885-1900.

Why: Most of Andrew Carnegie's success came from being strong willed and willing to do more and more. He did not want World War 1 to happen, so he gave out a lot of money to various companies and organizations. He was very disappointed in America for joining the war.

MLA Citation: Andrew Carnegie. Wikipedia. February 6, 2014. Web. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_carnegie

Alexander Graham Bell- Failure to Success

Who: Alexander Graham Bell was born on March 3, 1847 in Eidenburgh, Scotland, UK and died on August 7, 1922 at the age of 75 in Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada. He was married to Mabel Hubbard. They had four children, but two died during infancy.

What: Alexander Graham Bell was a bright scientist, an innovator, inventor, and engineer who invented many useful and important things that we can't live without today. Alexander's father, grandfather, and brother had been working with elocution and speech, and his mother and wife were both deaf so that greatly impacted his life's work. His research on hearing and speech further led him to invent the telephone. During the process of inventing and building the telephone he had a partner named Tom Watson to build the parts for it. After many tries and failures, the telephone worked!! When he knew the telephone worked, Alexander said his most famous lines, "Watson come here!!, I want to see you!!." Many other inventions marked Alexander's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils, and aeronautics. Alexander Graham Bell has been described as one of the most influential figures in history.

When: Alexander Graham Bell and Tom Watson invented the telephone on March 10, 1876.

Where: Alexander was born in Eidenburgh, Scotland, UK. Later immigrated to the United States of America, and died in Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Why: Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone because you could talk to a friend far away, you could phone the doctor if you were sick, and even buy groceries without leaving the house. The invention of the telephone revolutionized America.

MLA Citation: Alexander Graham Bell. Wikipedia. January 31, 2014. February 8, 2014. Web. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_graham_bell#Telephone

Samuel Gompers- Leader of the American Federation of Labor

Who: Samuel Gompers was born on January 27, 1850 in London, England. He died on December 13, 1924 at the age of 74 in San Antonio, Texas. At first, he was married to Sophia Julian, but after she died he married Gertrude Gleaves Neuscheler. He had multiple children with Sophia.

What: The Gompers family immigrated to the United States in 1863. They started working as cigar-makers in the Cigarmakers National Union and later Samuel was elected president. The Union underwent terrible blows to their business because of workers complaining about their salaries and work hours. Samuel was concerned about this so he formed the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and served as the president from 1886 to his death in 1924. The AFL promoted shorter working hours, higher salaries, safer working conditions, and cleaner conditions. During World War 1, Samuel and the AFL openly supported the war effort, attempting to avoid strikes and boosting morale, while raising wage rates and expanding membership.

Where: Samuel Gompers first lived in London, England, then migrated to the United States.

When: Samuel Gompers started the American Federation of Labor in 1886.

Why: He wanted workers to have better working conditions, salaries, and shorter working hours.

MLA Citation: Samuel Gompers. Wikipedia. January 21, 2014. February 8, 2014. Web. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Gompers

Chinese Laborers on the Transcontinental Railroad

Who: Chinese Laborers.

What: Chinese Laborers were employed by the Central Pacific in 1863 because they were short of workers. The gold and silver mines had lured too many workers away from the job of tunneling through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Central Pacific's big four directors employed as many as 12,000 Chinese Laborers because instead of a normal $35 salary+room+board, they earned $30 and had to pay for their room and board. The Chinese laborers quickly became known as the hardest workers. They hardly ever missed work because of disease, and almost never needed breaks in the day. On an analysis of their diets and cleanliness, it was found that the Chinese ate plenty of rice and vegetables and drank tea and bathed every day. The White workers on the other hand, ate poor quality cuts of meat, drank from the streams, and did not bathe.

Where: From the Sierra Nevada's to Utah.

When: 1863.

Why: CP needed more workers.

MLA Citation: Railroad across America- CP conquers the Mountains. Edhelper. February 9, 2014. Web. http://www.edhelper.com/ReadingComprehension_35_134.html