Cellular Processes

By Rohan Jupelly & George Kolev

Photosynthesis

In plants, sunlight, water and carbon dioxide are brought to the plant in various ways. The products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen, represented in this formula:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O+Sunlight ------> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

The Sun

The sun is what allows for the energy used in photosynthesis

Chloroplasts

The chloroplasts are where photosynthesis happens. First, the sunlight enters the chloroplasts, where it splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. ATP is also generated through this reaction for the Calvin Cycle. In the Calvin cycle, the energy stored in the ATP is used to make glucose and the byproduct oxygen

Collection of Materials Used for Cellular Respiration in a Human

Cellular Respiration (Aerobic)

Cellular respiration is the process in which ATP is generated using oxygen and glucose, mostly taking place in the mitochondria, with the exception of glucose. The result of cellular respiration is water, carbon dioxide, and ATP. The first stage of cellular respiration is when glucose enters into the cell using facilitated diffusion. Then, in the cytoplasm, glycolosis occurs, where two pyruvates, 2 NADH molecules, and 2 ATP are made. The pyruvates enter the mitochondria and enters the Kreb's cycle, where 2 more ATP, 3 more NADH, 1 FADH2, a citric acid byproduct, and carbon dioxide are made. The NADH and FADH2 are energized by electrons making them excellent for carrying them. These then enter the electron transport chain where the electrons and H+ cross the membrane and enter the ATP synthase, which combines ADP and another phosphate group, creating 34 ATP. Combined with all the other ATP generated from the other cycles, 38 ATP is mad. This makes the formula O2+glucose-> H2O+energy+CO2

Cellular Respiration (Anaerobic)

In anaerobic respiration, glycolosis takes place, but since their is not enough oxygen present, it goes through fermentation, where lactic acid and a little ATP are generated. This is good because it allows for an organism or plant to survive in habitats with an oxygen deprivation. In animals, the lactic acid made creates soreness of the muscles. In plants, like barley, fermentation makes alcohol.

Connections

The reactants of photosynthesis and the products of cellular respiration are the same and vice-versa. This in effect balances both the processes, so nothing is overproduced