MLA Formatting & Style Guide - 8th

A Publication of the Trocaire College Libraries

MLA Paper Formatting

IMPORTANT: Set up your paper before you begin typing it!


    • 8.5x 11 in. paper
    • 1 in. margins all around
    • 12 pt. font (use a simple legible font – Times New Roman, Arial)
    • The entire paper is to be double spaced.
    • Indent the first line of a paragraph (use Tab key).
    • All pages are numbered with your last name preceding it
    • Or check out our template at: https://library.trocaire.edu/services/studentservices/citationhelp/
    Big image

    In-Text Citations

      • If you use something word for word, you must cite your quotation.
      • The quotation must be in quotes, followed by the citation.
      • Quotations longer than four lines should be set off in block text.
      • If you paraphrase an author’s work (write it in your own words), you must cite your source.
      • All in-text citations are contained in parentheses.
      • Print sources (books, journals, magazines) use author and page number. eBooks and articles from databases can also be cited this way if the page number is available.
      • The author’s name can appear in the paraphrase with the page number in parenthesis at the end or all can be cited at the end of the paraphrase.
      • The first 3 authors must be listed by their last names. For citations with more than 3 authors, list the first author, then et al.

      • A page within a website is cited by author and web page title in quotations.
      • Videos must have the time included for in-text citation.
      • See Purdue OWL’s MLA Guide for additional in-text citation information.

      Books, eBooks, Journal Articles (online or print)


      “Direct quote from author” (author page number).


      “To some New York is just a city, to a New Yorker it is paradise on Earth” (Collins 11).


      “The freedom to do what you love does not happen for many people” (Edwards, Tabb, and Mix 72).


      **For citations with 4 or more authors, use et al. after the first author.


      "Remix culture is not a new phenomenon" (Anderson et al. 44).


      ***************************************************************************


      If paraphrasing with the author’s name, end with (page number).


      Collins states that New York is a paradise for those living there (11).


      Edwards, Tabb and Mix believed that the freedom to do what you love is not common for most people (72).


      **For citations with 4 or more authors, use et al. after the first author.


      Anderson et al. do not find remix culture to be a new development (44).

      Webpages (section of a website)

      “Direct quote from author” (author, "Web Page Title"). If no author is available, end with (“Web Page Title”).


      “Some may say that all suburbs are the same. That person would be a liar” (Avery, “It’s Not Just a Subdivision”).


      “Change is something that happens whether we wish it to or not” (James, Alexander, & Taylor, “Change Agents and Daydreams”).


      **For citations with 4 or more authors, use et al. after the first author.


      “Always check your citations and your sources before accepting something as fact” (Ortiz et al, “Know Your Truths”).


      ****************************************************************************

      If paraphrasing with the author’s name, end with (“Web Page Title”).

      Avery states that people who believe all suburbs are the same are liars (“It’s Not Just a Subdivision”).


      James, Alexander, & Taylor believed changes happen regardless of what we wish (“Change Agents and Daydreams”).


      **For citations with 4 or more authors, use et al. after the first author.


      Ortiz et al. preached fact checking through sources and citations (“Know Your Truths”).

      Videos


      “Direct quote from video” (“Title of Video” 00:00:00-00).


      “Pigeons are founders of the green movement. They are the original locavores and recyclers” (“Pigeons” 00:03:15-19).


      ***************************************************************************


      If paraphrasing, end with (“Title of Video” 00:00:00-00).


      Pigeons are among the first locavores and recyclers in the green movement (“Pigeons” 00:03:15-04:12).

      Works Cited Page

        • Works Cited is placed on the top of the page and centered.
        • Like the rest of your paper this is double spaced.
        • The header with your last name and page number also appears on this page.
        • The new MLA 8th edition has removed the requirement for format in citations.
        • The new MLA 8th edition now has the date information was accessed online as optional.
        • The new MLA 8th edition requires all online materials include a complete URL. This includes journal articles found in library databases. http or https is not included in the citation.
        • List all of your citations alphabetically.
        • The second and subsequent lines of each citation are indented (hanging indent).
        • Titles of journals, books and websites are italicized and each word is capitalized except for articles (the, an, and).
        • Titles of web pages or articles are placed in quotations. Same rules for capitalization as above.
        • See Purdue OWL’s MLA Guide for additional works cited citation information.

        Works Cited: Core Elements


        MLA citation format for the 8th edition is now based on core elements comprising basic information normally found in a work. This is the order of the nine (9) core elements, but not all may be used to complete a given citation.


        1. Author (creator, translator or editor of a work)
        2. Title of Source (book or eBook (whole), book or eBook chapter, essay or story, journal or magazine article, webpage or title of a video)
        3. Title of Container (journal, website, book or eBook (collections), magazine, newspaper,)
        4. Other Contributors (editors or translators (if different than author), illustrators, narrators, performers for television shows or movies)
        5. Version (edition number, expanded, unabridged or authorized editions)
        6. Number (volume, issue)
        7. Publisher (book or eBook publisher, blog or website network, film distributor)
        8. Publication Date (day month year - month is abbreviated, year may be only date available)
        9. Location (page numbers (p. (one) or pp.(multiple pages), doi number or complete URL without http for online resources)


        Date of access is optional for citations of online resources (database articles, websites, videos). Check with your instructor to see what is required.


        Please consult the MLA Handbook, 8th edition or Purdue OWL’s MLA section for more information regarding changes for citations.

        Big image

        The hanging indent will not appear in any of these examples due to webpage formatting.

        Books:


        Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title with Proper Capitals. Publishing Company, Year.


        Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid’s Tale. Anchor Books, 1998.


        MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2009.


        Posamentier, Alfred, and Bernd Thaller. Numbers. Prometheus Books, 2015.


        **3 or more authors is cited as main author followed by et al.


        Deery, Ruth, et al. Sociology for Midwives. Polity Press, 2015.

        eBooks:


        Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title with Proper Capitals. Publishing Company, Year. Database (if applicable). Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).


        Boulton, Christopher. Encyclopaedia of Brewing. Wiley, 2013. Ebook Library. ny3r.eblib.com.ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1204057. Accessed 31 Aug. 2016.


        Raynor, Maureen, and Carole England. Psychology for Midwives. McGraw-Hill Education, 2010. EBSCOhost. ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=466413&site=ehost-live. Accessed 31 Aug. 2016.


        **3 or more authors is cited as main author followed by et al.


        Drake, Richard, et al. Gray's Anatomy for Students. 3rd ed., Churchill Livingstone, 2015. EBSCOhost. ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1160429&site=ehost-live. Accessed 31 Aug. 2016.

        Journal Article, Magazine, Newspaper (database/online):


        Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Article with Proper Capitals.” Journal Title, volume, issue, Date, pages (if available). Database (if applicable). Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).


        Lund, James R. "Best Practices from a Library Cat." The Bottom Line, vol. 24, no. 1, 2011, pp. 49-50. ProQuest. ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/868912395?accountid=25948. Accessed 28 Sept. 2016.


        Heuberger, Roschelle, and Joseph Wakshlag. "Characteristics of Aging Pets and their Owners: Dogs v. Cats." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 106, 2011, pp. 150-153. ProQuest. ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/899267592?accountid=25948. Accessed 28 Sept. 2016.


        **3 or more authors is cited as main author followed by et al.


        Salmon, Jo, et al. "Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 81, no. 3, 2010, pp. 264-71. ProQuest. ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/751606452?accountid=25948. Accessed 29 Aug. 2016.

        Journal Article, Magazine, Newspaper (print):


        Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Article with Proper Capitals.” Journal Title, volume, issue, Date, pages.


        Lund, James R. "Best Practices from a Library Cat." The Bottom Line, vol. 24, no.1, 2011, pp. 49-50.


        Heuberger, Roschelle, and Joseph Wakshlag. "Characteristics of Aging Pets and their Owners: Dogs v. Cats." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 106, 2011, pp. 150-153.


        **3 or more authors is cited as main author followed by et al.


        Salmon, Jo, et al. "Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 81, no. 3, 2010, pp. 264-71.

        Webpages (section of a website or blog):


        Last Name, First Name (if available). “Title of Webpage.” Title of Website. Publisher of Website (if different than website title), Date created or last updated. Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).


        Mayo Clinic Staff. “Chickenpox.” Mayo Clinic. 16 Feb. 2016. www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chickenpox/home/ovc-20191271. Accessed 12 Apr. 2016.


        Dvorsky, George. “We Finally Know Why Birds Are So Freakishly Smart.” Gizmodo. Gawker Media, 13 Jun. 2016. gizmodo.com/we-finally-know-why-birds-are-so-freakishly-smart-1781889157. Accessed 18 Oct. 2016.

        Streaming Video (library video database, YouTube or NetFlix):


        Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Video with Proper Capitals.” Title of Database, Website or Service. Publisher of Content, Date created. Secondary Content Provider (if applicable), Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).


        “The Circulation System.” Films on Demand. Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2009. ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=240375&xtid=39509. Accessed 23 Feb. 2016.


        Lil BUB. "BUB Jumps off the Couch." YouTube. 4 Apr. 2015. www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pW-p-wb8U4.


        **Format varies for television shows or miniseries.


        “Silence in the Library.” Doctor Who, season 4, episode 9, BBC, 31 May 2008. Amazon Prime Video, www.amazon.com/dp/B01AYO8JWW?autoplay=1&t=1.

        DVDs, Television or Movies:


        **Note: Film or Television is used in place of DVD only if what is being cited is currently playing in theaters or on television. Dir. is the director of the film or episode. Perf. is the main stars of the film or show.


        Title of Movie. Directed or Created by Name, performance by Name, Production Studio, Year Released.


        Blue Valentine. Directed by Derek Cianfrance, performance by Ryan Gosling and Michelle Williams, Weinstein Company, 2010.

        PowerPoint, Presentation or Lecture Notes (online):


        Author’s Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of PowerPoint." Title of Website. Institution/organization affiliated with the site (if different) , Date Created (if available). Complete URL without http if accessed online. Date of access (optional).


        King, David. "Tech Trends for Libraries in 2016." SlideShare. LinkedIn, 30 Oct. 2015. www.slideshare.net/davidleeking/tech-trends-for-libraries-in-2016.

        Wikipedia and Other Wikis:


        “Title of Article with Proper Capitals.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Date of last update. Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).


        “Doctor Who.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 Jun. 2016. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_Who.


        **Note: Wikis, such as Wikipedia, are constantly changing due to their ability to be edited by anyone in the public.


        • Information may not be correct and may be added or removed from the site without advanced notice.
        • Use the View History tab near the top of the page to see the when the entry was updated.
        Guide created by Keri Thomas-Whiteside and Cindy Seitz, Spring 2015, 8th edition - updated Fall 2017

        This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.