Mining and fracking

their effects on the enviorment by Dalia and Amy

Surface mining

When surface vegetation, dirt, and if needed layer of bedrock are being removed to reach buried ore deposits


open pit mining

strip mining

mountain top removal

Open pit mining

a surface mining technique of extracting rock and minerals from the earth by their removal from a open pit or borrow

Effect: when the rocks are separated it can produce toxic and radioactive substance. these elements can leak into bedrock if not properly contained.

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Strip mining

The practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlaying soil and rock.

Effect: Strip mining destroys landscapes, forests and wildlife habitats at the site of the mine when trees, plants, and topsoil are cleared from the mining area. This in turn leads to soil erosion and destruction of agricultural land.

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Mountain top mining

a way using explosives to remove the top of the mountain

Effect:The exposed rock leaches heavy metals and other toxics that pose enormous health threats to the region’s plants and animals and people.

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Underground mining

the digging of tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits.

Examples Slope, Shaft and Drift mining

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Slope mining

an vertical or horizontal tunnel to find ore or coal.

Effect: Deforestation, erosion, Entrapment.

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shaft mining

excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.

Effect: Disruption of rock structure and underground water flow

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Draft mining

the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods or the working of coal seams and accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed.

Effect: damage to water and soil.

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the process of drilling into the earth before a high pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas inside.

Effect: it can cause toxic waste water

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