DNA and Protein Synthesis
Bethany, Kayla, and Alanna
RNA (ribonucleic acid)- carries out protein synthesis
mRNA (messenger)- brings instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
rRNA (ribosomal)- binds to mRNA to help assemble amino acids in the correct order
tRNA (transfer)- carries amino acids to the ribosomes
gene- a segment of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide of a protein
Why do we need DNA?
What to know about DNA
- DNA is in the form of Double Helix- Scientist Crick and Watson were credited for discovering this.
- The Monomer of DNA is nucleotide which is made up of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base.
- There are 4 types of nitrogen bases, A-Adenine, G-Guanine, T-Thymine, C-Cytosine.
- Adenine and Thymine bond together and Guanine and Cytosine bond together.
- The double helix consists of sides and rungs.
- The rungs are made up of nitrogen bases.
- Adenine and Guanine are purines, which has double rings
- Thymine and Cytosine have single rings, which means they are pyrimidines
- The sides are made up of sugar and phosphate.
- The DNA can only exist in the nucleus.
- Hershey and Chase
What is Semiconservative Replication?
(Ribonucleic Acid) - Carries out protein synthesis.
Types of RNA
- mRNA (messenger) - Brings the instructions from the DNA that is located in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
- rRNA (ribosomal)- Binds to mRNA to help assemble amino acids in the correct order
- tRNA (transfer) - Carries amino acids to the ribosome.
- mRNA transcript leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome with all the needed information.
- mRNA has introns and exons- exons are expressed, introns are not expressed.
- Before mRNA goes to the ribosome it must first get rid of any introns.
RNA nitrogen bases.
- A pairs with U
- C pairs with G
What is a codon?
- An anticodon is the complementary pair to the codon