The Sun

Destini Riley

The Sun is composed of several layers or regions.  These parts perform a specific function to keep the Sun alive. There are some regions in the Sun which can be seen from the Earth and those visible regions of the Sun are part of its atmosphere. The Sun is composed of several parts: the corona, chromosphere, photosphere, core, Sunspots and prominences.
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Corona is the outermost layer of the Sun’s atmosphere. It is visible only during the total eclipse of the Sun, and it extends in all directions from the chromosphere.


The chromosphere is the middle layer of the Sun. It is a blanket of glowing gases surrounding the Sun and measuring 16,000 kilometers thick. It is known as a thin zone of electrified matter. This zone is not visible because of the very bright light emitted from the chromosphere. However, when there is a total eclipse, it becomes visible.

The photosphere

The photosphere which is the third and innermost layer of the Sun’s atmosphere. This photosphere has tremendous clouds of calcium vapor. It is surrounded by a layer of lighter and cooler gases.

  • This layer releases light which reaches the earth.


At the center of the Sun is the core where hydrogen is converted to helium. This conversion of gases produces energy in the form of heat and light which finds its way to the Sun’s surface and then into space.

Convective zone

The convective zone, which is the final 30 percent of the sun's radius, is dominated by convection currents that carry the energy outward to the surface

Radiative zone

The radiative zone extends outward from the core, in this zone, the energy from the core is carried outward by photons

Sunspots and Prominences

  • Sunspots are areas of cooler gases associated with disturbances on the Sun’s surface.
  • Prominences are arches of gases billowing out of the Sun’s surface


Aurora are natural, multicolored lights displays that can primarily been seen at high latitudes, near the north and south poles. They are caused by energetic electrons and protons exciting atoms in Earth’s upper atmosphere.

Solar Flares

  • A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed near the Sun's surface