About Erik Erikson
Contributions to Psychology
- Trust vs. Mistrust: During the first stage infants are unsure about their environment, they look to their care givers to stability and consistency. Being successful in this stage will lead to hope while failure will lead to fear. (McLeod, 2008).
- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: This stage focuses on children become more independent; if the child is successful then they will be confident and have higher sense in independence, but those who fail will feel inadequate. (McLeod, 2008).
- Initiative vs.Guilt: At this stage children will start to become more curious about the world and begin asking questions. If the parents view the questions as dumb, unimportant and embarrassing, then the child will begin to feel guilty for being "annoying" (McLeod, 2008).
- Industry vs. Inferiority: If a child is encouraged a praised their confidence will rise and feel competent. However, if the child is encouraged the will begin to feel inferior (McLeod, 2008).
- Identity vs. Confusion: This stage allows children to find out who they are and develop and sense of identity and true self, those who complete this stage successfully feel very independent while those who do not feel insecure about who they are (McLeod, 2008).
- Intimacy vs. Isolation: This stage deals with developing person relationships with people, Erikson believed that this was important in order to build relationships that are successful and last a long time. People successful in this stage will learn how to love (McLeod, 2008).
- Generativity vs. Stagnation: Those who are successful during this stage will enjoy their life and feel like they are an active part of the community and care for their life, while those who fail to succeed in this stage will feel uninvolved in the world (McLeod, 2008).
- Integrity vs. Despair: This is the last stage of Erikson's psycho social theory. It involves one looking back and reflecting on their life. If the individual is successful during this stage they will feel happy and contempt with their life while an individual who is unsuccessful will feel like they have wasted their life (McLeod, 2008).
Cherry, K. (n.d.). How Erik Erikson's Own Identity Crisis Shaped His Theories. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_erikson.htm
McLeod, S. (2008, January 1). Erik Erikson. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial_3.htm#