Assignment #2

By:Sidra Ibad

Jamestown

1619: African Americans from Ndongo in Angola and West Central Africa were documented to arrive in Jamestown as indentured servants compared to .In addition, the settlers created the House of Burgesses, which was the first government institution that had a popularly elected legislature in the Americas


John Rolfe: John Rolfe established the first colony in the New Worlds at Jamestown His relationship with a Native American woman, named Pocahontas led to a marriage, which alleviated the tension between Native Americans and the English Settlers. This period was known as the Temporary Peace.


Anglo-Powhatan Wars: The first war was initiated by tension between De La Warr and the Powhatans and led to the marriage of John Rolfe to Pocahontas (causing the Temporary Peace before Pocahontas’s death). The second Anglo-Powhatan began with the Native Americans and culminated in the formal separation between English and Indian settlement areas


Peace Treaty of 1646: The Peace Treaty of 1646 created a delineation of land between the English and the Native Americans, which was a direct consequence of the Second Anglo-Powhatan War. This served a vital role in the concept of removing Native Americans from ancestral land.


Virginia Company: The Virginia Company was enacted by James the first in order to attain gold to export back to Europe and for land for further development. The charter of the Virginia Company initiated a concept of equality for colonists in America to that of their homeland in England.


Indentured Servitude: An indentured servant was under the contract to an employer for a fixed rate of time in exchange for their transportation, food, and other necessities. Difficulties led to the limited longevity of an indentured servant.


Starving Time: Starving Time was a period of death and desperation among those that arrived or tried to arrive in the New World. Because an infestation of mosquitos, which ended up carrying malaria, conflicts with Native Americans, and lack of sanitation within ships, the number of Europeans moving to the New World died at exceedingly high rates.


Pocahontas: Pocahontas was a member of the Powhatan Native American who saved the life of John Smith, advocating the concept of tolerance and compassion between two conflicting groups. She also married John Rolfe, the father of tobacco, which caused a period of time in Powhatan history known as the Temporary Peace.


James 1: James the first signed a series of charters allowing the Virginia Company access to their first encounter with the New World. He revoked the charter of the bankrupt Virginia Company, causing it to become a colony under the king’s direct control.


Colonial Slavery: In order to ensure the superiority of their power in the New World, Europeans condemned African Americans to conditions and slaves and servants. Slaves were deprived of educational facilities, degree of freedom, and ability to protect themselves as well as their families.


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Massachusetts Bay

John Winthrop: John Winthrop was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony for 12 of the first twenty years of its entity. He also gave a sermon underscoring the degree of obligation and duties the people had an untenable right to pay back to God, which was known as the City upon a Hill.


King Charles the first: In 1629 King Charles the First of England gave Puritans the permission to settle Massachusetts Bay. This charter from King Charles served as the foundation for an unwitting approval for the colony to develop its own government and strict sovereignty from the Europeans


Mayflower Compact: The Mayflower Compact served as the foundation for self-government in the New World by establishing a government for the Plymouth colony.


Puritans: The Puritans were individuals who desired to adopt reforms that would sanctify and purify the Church of England. Through permission from the King of England, the non-separatists embraced religious freedom and sovereignty from the government which previously dictated over them


Cambridge Agreement: The Cambridge Agreement was an arrangement in which the Puritan stockholders exchanged their emigration to New England with their own sovereignty in terms of control of government of the colony.


Anne Hutchinson: Anne Hutchinson was the initiator of the Antinomianists, individuals who believed that rather than communicating through church elders, God communicated directly to individuals. Because of the controversial issue of this theory, Anne Hutchinson was removed from Massachusetts.


Roger Williams: Roger Williams was considered to be an individualistic individual who demonstrated separatist tendencies in Salem. Because of the overall denigration of his concepts, he immigrated to the colony he founded, Rhode Island, which was the only location for complete religious freedom of all the thirteen colonies.


Puritan Migration: The period known as the Puritan Migration was characterized by a drastic influx of Puritans from England to America during the 1630s. Because of this rapidly increasing rate of migration, the population of Massachusetts Bay grew ten times greater than that of its previous population


1631: During the year of 1631, church members were prevented from voting rights due to an act placed by the Massachusetts general court. This caused the foundation for tension between the church members and the members of the general court of Massachusetts


Dominion of New England: Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut were integrated into a single entity, or province, ruled by Andros, the royal governor. However, in 1692, the colonists caused a rebellion and removed Governor Andros from his position, causing the overall disintegration of the Dominion.


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Pennsylvania

1633: The first European settlements were established by the Dutch and the Swedish


William Penn: In the pursuit of religious freedom, William Penn established Pennsylvania, a colony that served as a sanctuary for Qakers. Receiving a land grand from King Charles the Second, Penn provided a method of freedom and separation from established customs and beliefs.


George Fox: A man with a dynamic lifestyle that encompassed rest for an unquiet soul in the Established Church, dissention from established customs and beliefs, and after a moment of enlightenment, he decided his niche as a preacher around the world.


Qakers: Seeking to mandate over and regulate the methods of worship, the Quakers, a group of English Protestants, condemned the Reformation of the Church of England that was previously governed by Elizabeth.


Liberal land Laws in Pennsylvania: In the pursuit of finding a sanctuary for those that were persecuted against for their religion, Penn allowed anyone to immigrate to Pennsylvania to establish a new lifestyle with religious tolerance.


King Charles the Second: Granting Penn land in the territory situated between Lord Baltimore’s Maryland and the Duke of York’s New York, the king provided the foundation for the religious freedom and prospering nature which characterized colonial Pennsylvania.


Holy experiment: William Penn’s interpretation of the government of Pennsylvania, characterized by an establishment of freedom for all


Frame of Government: The Charter of Liberties established the Pennsylvania colony’s government. This method of representative government provided the foundation for counties to create their own colonies.


William Markham: Established by Penn as the first governor of Pennsylvania, Markham was provided the materials and opportunities to govern by laws of sovereignty and live as industrious members pointed towards a central goal.


Philadelphia: Birthplace of the Constitution of the United States, Philadelphia became an essential location for the urbanized standing of colonial America, which is implemented up to this day


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Maryland

Lord Baltimore: Knowing that Catholics would consist of the minority of the colony, Lord Baltimore established a settlement in Maryland, which provided a sanctuary for those who were previously prejudiced against.


Maryland Act of Toleration (Act of Religious Toleration): An act that established the foundation for religious tolerance and freedom to only Christians compared to other monotheistic and polytheistic religions. Ordered by Lord Baltimore, this reinforced a positive image in favor of the colony’s large Protestant population


Clayborne: Creating a varied persona for himself as a Virginia surveyor, tradesman, and member of the council, Clayborne initiated a trading post alongside Kent Island despite his lack of ownership of the land he claimed. This timing approached before Calvert was issued the charter of Maryland


Proprietary Colony: A proprietary colony is one in which the governor selects an individual known as a proprietor, who signifies an authority figure for property as well as the establishment of the colony being governed, the king does not have direct control


Calvert: Serving fourteen years, Calvert was furnished with the opportunity to be the lord proprietor. Having only been governor of the colony since the Restoration of England, Calvert was noted for his primary position as the son of Cecilius Calvert


Henrietta Maria: Drawing individuals with the greed for economic opportunity, Maryland, named after England’s queen Henrietta Maria, provided a sanctuary for those who settled there in 1634.


Leonard Calvert: Purchasing the Indian’s Yoamaco, Leonard Calvert lived up to the expectation of Lord Baltimore’s brother. This region was later renamed Saint Mary’s, creating a religious sentiment and sense of unity among the English settlers in the New World



Restoration of 1660: Extending a general pardon to all political offenders, Lord Baltimore retained his position as founder, and Philip Calvert established his niche as the governor of Maryland. This resolution period retained the proprietary colony model that previously reigned over Maryland.


Sir Lionel Copley: Serving as a royal governor, Sir Lionel Copley displayed lack of religious tolerance, creating a central method of praying (Church of England’s form of worship) which was established and supported by the law.


1635: Creating a rebellion in 1635, Clayborne created a residence on the island of Kent, which was located distinctively from Annapolis. However, because of his refusal to submit to the authority of Lord Baltimore, he created a succession of conflicts and rebellions within the colony.


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Georgia

1733: Serving as a sanctuary for those in destitute, the poor, and those that were religiously prejudiced, Georgia embodied a buffer state, which resolved tension between the Carolinas and the Spanish-held Florida (because of conflict of religion between Protestant and Catholic)


James Oglethorpe: Characterized as a dictator, Oglethorpe prevented the establishment of slavery systems, slavery, and Catholicism in his region of jurisdiction. This eventually led to the deterioration of Oglethorpe as well as the colony he previously governed


Royal colony: Rather than a provincial government in which the government dictates who is chosen as a leader, the government elects a governor, who eventually gives responsibility to lesser officers to govern the colony as well as the development that accompanies it


George Whitfield: Establishing a plantation in South Carolina filled with slaves, Whitfield donated money attained through labor to house orphaned children in Savannah, believing that African Americans owed Europeans the condition of slavery in return for the deterioration of native heathenism.


1721: Creating a foundation for further development for English settlement near the region as well as throughout the New World, Fort King George was built as a the primary English settlement in the territory, placed at the mouth of the Altamaha River.


George the Second: Establishing a charter that enabled members of the board of trustees to survey the land encased between Savannah and the Altamaha rivers. Eventually, this region became known as Georgia to honor the individual that provided them with the opportunity to discover Georgia


Yamacraw Bluff: Eventually becoming Savannah, Yamacraw Bluff was a region encased by the Savannah River. However, this region would only become Savannah after the arrival of Oglethorpe accompanied by his group of settlers.


Savannah: An area formerly occupied by the Yamacraw Indians and known as the Yamacraw Bluff, the Europeans removed the Indians from the land by erecting a fortification, felling woods, and marking the town


John Reynolds: Serving as Georgia’s primary royal governor for a period of 3 consecutive years, the captain of the British royal navy created a dedicated persona for himself as John Reynolds.


Yamacraw: Consisting of approximately 200 Native Americans, the Yamacraw Indians created a distinction between Lower Creeks and Yamasees. However, because of their location in the Savannah area, most ingratiated themselves with the Lower Creeks to create unity within the regions.

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