Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a vast change in bringing back ideas from the middle ages to help the intellectual realm of the world. The revolution brought back ideas that probably would of been forgotten if they were never brought up again. It allowed us to understand so much more about the world. The lasting effects of this intellectual revolution had lasting effects on society as a whole.

Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus(1473-1543) was a priest and astronomer. Like many of these philosophers copernicus was trying to help the papacy understand how earth sits in our solar system. He was trying to confince the papacy in doing so that easter could be calculated on the correct date.

Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe(1546-1601) was an Danish astronomer that embraced his own theory of how planets revolved in our planetary system. Brahe suggested that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun while the sun the moon, and the other planets revolved around earth. Brahe was able to construct scientific instruments that allowed more extensive look at planets with the naked-eye. He was able to produce a vast amount of astronomical data that his successors could work with.

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler(1571-1630) was assistant to Tycho Brahe and a German astronomer. Kepler was deeply influence by Neoplatonism. Kepler took Copernicus views of a heliocentric world to the next step. Kepler was able to determine from his studies of Brahe discoveries that the planets orbits weren't circular that they were elliptical. Kepler after stating things in his new findings was often question on how the elliptical idea work and the planets didn't just go off in a tangent.

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei(1564-1642) was an Italian mathematician and natural philosopher. Using the newly invented telescope he was able to understand the existence of mountains on the moon, spots moving in front of the sun, and moons revolving around Jupiter. He understood after his new discoveries that it required a Copernican view of the heavens. Later in his life he became the philosopher and mathematician for the Grand Duke of Tuscany and Medici. Galilei was able to popularize the Copernicus system through political skills. He made sure he stayed in good standing with the Medici family by naming the moons of Jupiter after family members of them. Galileo was probably the most important philosopher of this time. He was able to help us understand the universe and how it works.

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton(1642-1727) was an English Philosopher. Newton was a mathematical genius who help Galileo and his reasoning on why the planets went in elliptical shape. He was able to explain gravity and how the force of gravity kept everything in align. Newton was a big empiricist, and rationalist. This made him very popular to the public and allowed his ideas to be accepted by a lot of people.

Hobbes vs Locke

Thomas Hobbes was a strong central authoritarian when it came down to politics. He supported the new scientific movement and took much special interest in all the philosophers contributing to it. Hobbes political ideas came from the turmoil through the English Civil War. He wanted to provide strong central government authority over the people. According to Hobbes human beings have a natural desire to compete with other humans and reject the view that human beings are naturally sociable. He believe that all humans are self-centered creatures who lack a master. What Hobbes believed is that humans can get out of this state of nature through political contract that the people live in a tightly ruled by a sovereign. His contract would allow everyone to put away there personal rights for their own personal self-defense and sake of peace. Hobbes next believe that the rulers should be absolute and have unlimited power. In doing so this will allow the government to protect its citizens as it citizens give up everything they own to their absolute ruler. Hobbes ideas influence many nations throughout Europe in which absolute rulers try mirror and his philosophical ideas stayed around till late 17th century and onward.


John Locke on the other hand came at political philosophy with a different approach. He believe the government had a duty to be responsible and responsive to the governed. Unlike Hobbes, Locke promoted that natural right of life, and liberty. For Locke, human beings possess a strong capacity for dwelling more or less peacefully in society before they enter a political contract. He believes the people should enter a contract to form a more secure for the right of man, and the properties that they posses. He believes that the people that our being governed need to be able to build a relationship on trust not fear. Locke was a tolerate man when it came down the religious ideals. Locke later established a powerful foundation for the future of toleration throughout Europe in his Letter Concerning Toleration.


Even though both these political philosophers had a major impact on Europe and how it was run throughout its days. John Locke became the more popular choice in the end by the people and the Government. With a Government under Locke it promotes Religious toleration, and defends the liberty of everyday people not just the nobility. This allowed less revolts on the political side, and religious.

Women and The Scientific Revolution

Women were isolated intellectually throughout Europe unless you were a noblewoman or married into the artisan class. The policies of the 17th and 18th century restricted women from being able to learn. Even though this didn't stop some women primarily woman were excluded from most events for women to acquire knowledge about scientific endeavors. One exceptional young woman to this was Margaret Cavendish. She was able to present scientific writings to the female audience of Europe. Even though the natural philosophy of excluding women the pursuit of knowledge wasn't truly thrown out till 20th century it didn't stop the women who truly wanted to learn about scientific discoveries and even contribute to them.

Approaches to Science and Religion

Contemporaries of the time period posed a potential challenge to Religion. Many of the new discoveries don't agree to biblical statements. Next major thing is who would decide conflicts between the two church authorities or the philosophers. Finally religious thinkers believed that the new science supported a more materialistically thinking than spiritual one.

Case of Galileo

The condemnation of Galileo and Copernican-ism was a difficult time in history for the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants relied more on a private interpretation of scripture after this point and time. This divide in Church often caused protestants to abandoned Scripture due to the conflict in believes with the Roman church interpretation. Galileo later publish his views on how the bible should be translated by the Roman Catholic Authorities. Later Galileo and the Church came to an agreement on the issue. That Copernican-ism won't actually be stated as being true but as a theory to him. Later Pope Urban VIII allowed Galileo to continue the Copernican system. Galileo and The Roman Catholic Church was just the beginning of the cases to come with Science and Religion disagreeing on many subjects.

Pascal Reason with Faith

Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) was a french scientist who was self-disciplined in his efforts to reconcile faith and the new science. He denied skeptics of his age because either denied religion altogether or accepted it only as it conformed. Pascal was a Calvinist and in religious matters He saw two essential truths in Christian religion. One being that a loving God exist and two because human are corrupt by nature they are unworthy of God. To Pascal, reason itself was too weak to resolve the problems of human nature and destiny. Ultimately, reason should drive those who truly heeded it to faith in God and reliance on divine grace.

The English Approach

Francis Bacon established the foundation for reconciling science and religion that long influenced the speaking world. He believe that with studying nature the natural philosopher could achieve a deeper knowledge of thing divine. The Scientific Revolution showed a model for great desirability of change. In the end the new science and the technological advance improved the economic advancement. The thought that Human beings were meant to improve the world itself improve the economics of Europe. The ideological idea that human beings were placed here to understand everything about is what increase economic expansion.

The Witch Hunts

Which hunts often occurred throughout the Scientific Revolution due to the division in religion was a major factor at the time still. Some argue that the Reformation spurred the panics by taking away the traditional defenses against the devil and demons, thus compelling societies to protect themselves preemptively by searching out and executing witches.