Science Rules!!! By: Zeina Alasfar

learn about different ways to acquire resources

What is Surface Mining?

Surface Mining~ a method of mining used to extract minerals and metals which are near the surface of Earth

Three types of surface mining: open pit mining, strip mining, and quarry mining

Environmental Impacts:


  • habitat destruction
  • soil erosion
  • air pollution and dust particles
  • Pollution from sediments

What is Subsurface Mining?

Subsurface Mining~ consists of digging tunnels and shafts into the earth to reach buried mineral deposits

This use of mining is mainly used for Zinc,diamonds, gold,copper, phosphate,etc.

Types of subsurface Mining: Quarrying, Solution Mining, and Long wall

Environmental Impacts:

  • acid drainage
  • toxic leachate which can make its way down to groundwater
  • poisoned water

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What are the Differences between Surface and Subsurface Mining?

  • surface mining is less expensive and safer than Subsurface Mining
  • 60%
  • surface mining is on the earth's surface and moves the un-needed materials out of the way
  • Subsurface does not remove the un-needed materials away instead it uses machines to dig deep underground

Land Drilling vs. Ocean Drilling

History on Land Drilling:

The largest operating land drilling rig in the world is Nabors

Nabors has approximately 500 rigs working in more than 25 countries

Archer is one of the leading land drilling workforce contractors globally with a workforce of over 4000 maintenance personnel

Production Challenges:


  • rising gas prices
  • changing the rig technology
Environmental Concerns:



  • noise
  • air quality
  • hazardous materials and waste management
  • land use
  • health and safety
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Land Drilling vs. Ocean Drilling

History on Ocean Drilling:

Began off the coast of Summer-field California in 1896

The first oil well was drilled in August 28, 1859 in Pennsylvania by George Bissel and Edwin L.

Around 1891, the first oil wells were drilled from platforms built on piles in the fresh waters of the Grand Lake St. Marys

for 25 years, the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) operated the Glomar Challenger, a research ship 400 feet that was equipped with a drilling platform and scientific laboratories



Production Challenges:


  • The oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico
  • shallow fossil fuel reserves and drilling near the shore have become exhausted
  • Severe weather pose risks towards how the rigs are functioning


Environmental Concerns:

  • air pollution
  • invasive species
  • spills and leaks
  • coastal economics

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Lets Learn about Fracking!!!

Fracking: the process of drilling down into the earth before a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release gas inside


How is it done?

Water and sand chemicals are injected to a rock at high pressure which allows gas to flow to the head of the well


Environmental Effects:

  • contamination of groundwater
  • air pollution
  • waste disposal
  • exposure to toxic chemicals
  • blowouts due to gas explosions

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