Theology 2 Second Semester Exam

History of the Church/ Sehyun Park W4

Background Chapter: The Roman Empire

Much of Roman religion was of myths, storied, and names of their gods. As Roman culture developed, religion also got practical. Stoicism was a influential philosophical school in Greece and Rome. Over time, it became one of the dominant moral philosophies. Early cults ware meant to placate the gods through sacrifice as a means to protect the Roman state. Foreign cults usually invited the individual to personal religious belief. Roman women generally had little opportunities just seem as mere commodity to be brought and sold in the empire era. During republic era, women was respected.
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Chapter 1: Jesus and The Founding of the Church

It took less than 100 years to spread Christianity throughout the Empire. Numerous large cities and good roads connecting them and check points between cities made people travel easier and reduced the fear of attacks. Also, Christians demonstrated love, forgiveness, care for the poor, widows, orphans, giving hope to the slaves also the great spiritual unrest. Those all attracted many people.
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Chapter 2: The Early Christians

Christians remained closely associated with the Jewish faith. Jesus had baptized by St. John with a baptism repentance. In the first years after the Resurrection, adults who wanted to convert to the Faith were baptized freely. Agape, which means love, refers an early Christian meal to be celebrated in the evenings. The Apostolic fathers is a term given to a number of the earliest christian writers. Apologist defense three great opponents, Judaism, Gnostic heresies, and the various pagan, confront Christianity at that time. The Didache is a teaching covers Christian moral life, baptism, fasting, prayer, the Encharist, and the developing church hierarchy.
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Chapter 3: Persecution of "The Way"

"The Way" referred Jesus. Christians following Jesus called Followers of "the Way". Because many of the Jews refused to believe Jesus, followers of the way had persecuted. Nero, the 5th Roman Empire king, had spread rumor about Christians and ignited fire the whole city. Christians had accusations of cannibalism and martyrdom of the first pope. Followers of the Way began travelling to avoid persecution. Finally, they reached Antioch and preaching Gentiles, anybody who are not Jewish.
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Chapter 4: The Church Fathers and Heresies

There was The Ecumenical Councils is councils discuss central issues of the Church. There was diocesan council, provincial council, and plenary council. From the council of Nicaea, called from Constantine. This council was specially meaningful because Roman Empire allowed Christianity after 300 years of persecution. One of the biggest outcome from this council is Constantine Creed. St. Augustine was regarding as Greatest Father of the Church. He rolled many roles as theologian and philosopher.
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Chapter 5: Light in the Dark Ages

The collapse of the Roman Empire during the fifth century inaugurated a period of decline in the West. It was big issues. Roman Empire was strong and stable. The Church continued its mission and provided continuity. There was Huns who were the people at East Asia got famous at the time of fall of Rome. They have very unique attributes. At that time monasticism, the way of life separated into two way was general. Rather being solitude or being within community. There was five pillars of Islam.
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Chapter 7: The Great Schism

Distance between West and East owed misconception of Church government and hierarchy. In the beginning of local council, the Third Council of Toledo were added to Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed. In Great Schism, all of the tension had developed over centered became a head. Hope to be independence, all the issues made thousand of communion of East and West fall apart.
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Chapter 9: The Crusades

The Crusades are the series of eight expansive military expeditions between 1096 and 1270. It was defensive action in Holy Land against Muslim expansion. The land that were Christian lands were conquers by Muslim military forces like Palestine, Syria, and Egypt. Pope Urban the second had began crusades by proclaiming an organized assault in defense of Christian Europe. By the Crusades, they could gained cross cultural exchange and the deliverance of Holy Land and the rescue of the Christians in East.
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Chapter 9: The Inquisition

Inquisition is to give question and examine, jude the doctrinal opinions and moral conduct of suspicious individuals. Reaction to the threat point to church and society by heresies and capitol officers during median times. Dominicans and Franciscans were the ones in charge of the Inquisition. Mainly, heretics was the group target for Inquisition. From all European Inquisitions, Spanish Inquisition was different. They coincided with the Reconquista, the reconquering of Spain by the Christians against Muslims and the Jews.
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Chapter 10: The High Middle Ages

From the middle ages, the universities have boomed. In North, masters form a universities, a type of corporation to protect members. From University of Paris, northern universities have developed. They had renown professors. In the South, they had Italian city of Bologna succeeded Ravenna. They had art, law, and philosophies. School at Salerno had great affection on monastery school and philosophy. In most of the universities taught study program of theology, philosophy, law, medical, physics, and arts. At middle age, the art was more two dimensional and more simplified. Also, they just focused on drawing God showing religious magnitude.
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Chapter 11: The Plague

The Plague, Black Plague, had became biggest problem in entire Europe. There was Famine all around the countries, and Black death spread by fungus on Black Rats. Approximately 25,000,000 European had died of this disease. Black death had bring enormous blast. It break down conventional feudalism. Moreover, it cause regression of arts. Beside suffering the plague along with every one else, Jews were accused of poisoning wells and causing the plague. (anti-Semitism)
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Chapter 11: The Hundred War

Hundred Years War got its name because it was a series of battles which lasted about 100 years. It was a war between England and France of the throne during 14th century. As there's no direct blood line for next king in France, England had interference and be desirous of the crown. The first battle was Crecy in 1346 using bow. The second battle was Battle of Poitiers in 1356. The third battle well know is in Agincourt in 1415. From the beginning, England had chance of victory. But by Joan of Arc, the drift of a war had changed.
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Chapter 11: Joan of Arc

St. John was a girl born at Domremy in Champagne. At the age of 13, she began to hear voices and had a vision of light in which St. MIchael the Archangel, St. Margaret, and St. Catherine of Alexandria appeared to her. These guiding councils selected her as savior of France in critical situation of the Hundred Years War. She show her extraordinary ability by easily identify who the real Charles the eighth is. She led the France arms and turn the table of Hundred Years. At the age of 19, she had gone to inquisition and be accused as a witch. She became a symbol of French unity and national spirit.
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Chapter 12: The Renaissance

In the wavering society after plague, and schism, feudalism crumbling, new political and social movement had emerged. Especially, people kept tried to challenge in church and pope's absolute authority.People were tired of unify faith and almost denied need of God. Renaissance was the movement emerged at that time developing culturally in literature, arts. They focused on humanism. During Renaissance, the field of painting, sculpture, and poem had developed rapidly. In art, comparison to middle age, they had became more three dimensional and detailed. Also, because the authority of Catholic church had dropped, they focus on atheistic and scientific composition. Typical artist at Renaissance was Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and etc.
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Chapter 13: The Protestant Reformation

The Protestant is a denomination separated from Catholic. Protestant is new religion sect that had reformed at 16th century. Protestant Reformation had started from Martin Luther who have a doubt feeling of abuse of indulgences and improper veneration of relics. So he nailed ninety-five thesis on the door of church so many people can see. From mid 16th century, people began to question the teaching of the teaching of the church, shaking the very foundations of christendom. For brief summary, reformation had began because church needs to be reformed and society was changing of moral interests among ecclesiastics.
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Chapter 13: The English Reformation

The english Reformation started from King Henry the eighth. The matter of King Henry the eighth's annulment had occurred English Reformation. The pope would not let Henry the eighth divorce from his wife because of the reason that his wife couldn't produce a son for him. Thus, Henry the eighth dissatisfied so he called himself "Protector of the Faith" and be head of church by himself. This was the starting point of English Reformation. Although it started from annulment problem, Reformation had made root up the deep rooted christianity society. This had led England to modern time country.
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Chapter 15: Exploration and Missionary Movements

Starting from Christopher Columbus, intended to find sailing road to India but found new continent, European had started active exploration. Increase in supply of gold, sliver from the Spain helped to be world power. Middle class(Bankers+Merchants) replace the older aristocracy. Also, nations adopted new economic system called mercantilism for managing the demands of prolific trade. By limiting import and increase more export, nations could earn more capital.

In 1622, Pope Gregory the 15th founded congregation De propaganda Fide to promote and establish apostolic missions. There were many obstacles during new missionaries.

1. Too long distance 2. Climate extreme 3. Language/Cultural differences

4. Poor examples of many of the settlers.

Despite of this difficulties, including St. Francis Xavier and Fr. Bartolome de las Casas, many tried their hard on missionary.

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Chapter 16: The Age of Enlightenment

The Reformation had brought to a close an era of a united Western Christendom. The new philosophies in significant part had brought from Renaissance and Reformation. European thinkers interest in tangible world develop into scientific study. Jansenism was a group of people develop against the Reformation. Jansenism had led by Cornelius Jansenius. They denied validity of the Sacrament of Penance and taught that only the 'just' or predestined should receive Holy Communism. Descartes was an mathematician who found Cartesian geometry. He also have attributes to philosophy. His well know phrase is "I think, therefore I am". It was this time people know that sun, rather than earth, is the center of the universe.
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Chapter 19: The Rise of Soviet Communism

20th century was bloody, brutal epoch cause by numerous wars and revolt. One of the biggest power at that time was communist. At WW 1, it was serious implications from rise of Communism in Russia. Communism was a program of subversion, revolution, conquest, oppression, and religious and political persecution that cost millions of lives threatened world peace. It had caused from Karl Marz. At the time of severe persecutions emerged, Bl. Virgin Mary appeared to three peasant children at Fatima, Portugal offering message of dancing sun and prayer for the conversion of Russia. Religious persecution was a major element of the Communist program. Both Catholic and Orthodox churches were destroyed by them. The Church opposed Communism. It took more than fifty years for the Soviet Union to crumble and for Communism to fall in Eastern Europe.
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Chapter 19: The Rise of Nazism

Nazism was a blend of nationalist totalitarianism, racism aimed especially at Jews. It had started from Adolph Hitler. After World War 1, Hitler became German power. He begin in earnest to persecute Jews. They had brought to concentration camp. Also in Auschwitz prison camp, 3 million Polish Catholics and 20% of 3 million of priest had killed. In 1933 concordat between Germany and the Vatican, it had decided separation of the church and the states but church was not allowed to have political parties that shows an opposition to Hitler.
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Chapter 19: Pope Pius the 12th and World War 2

Pope Pius the 11th was the pope who tried hard to help Jews and for peace. Pope Pius the 12th and Catholic Church was accused of doing little to nothing to help the Jew during World War 2. However, Pope Pius the 11th rather speaks out for them than helped them hiding and escaping. Also, he lobbied Allies for Jews. Actually, Jews wanted them not to speak out. For appreciation for all that Pope Pius the 12th helped for the Jewish people during World War 2, the chief of Rabbi of Rome, Zolli, had converted and baptized.
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Chapter 20: Second Vatican

The second Vatican Council took place in four session from 1962 to 1963. The council was one of the major media events of the 1960s. The four major outcome from the council was the dogmatic constitution on the church, the dogmatic constitution on divine revelation, the constitution on the sacred liturgy, and the pastoral constitution on the church in the modern world.

1. The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church

-sets out collegiality, accruing to which the bishops, in union with and under the pope.

2. The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation

-joins sacred tradition in Sacred Scripture as God's divinely inspired word with approval of the responsible use.

3. The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy

-opened the door to expanded use of vernacular languages and to liturgical adaptions.

4. The Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World.

-shows Pope Bl. John's hope that the Church be more into service of the world.

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Chapter 20: Pope St. John Paul the second

Pope John Paul the second cardinals was the first non-Italian in more than 450 years. His name is Karol Wojtyla. He was the second son of a Polish army lieutenant. Because of World War 2, Poland was rapidly overrun and the German closed universities. After traveling Rome and studying at Pontifical University, he did pastil work. An active participant in the Second Vatican council, he participated in drifting the Pastroal Constitution on the Church.
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Chapter 21: The Church of Immigrants to the U.S.

Tremendous Catholic immigration from Europe to the United States began in early 19th century and continued actively during 20th century. New immigrants were attracted by the promise of works, land, and religious and political freedom. Most of them came from Ireland, Germany, and France. Since new immigrants and birth rates get higher, American Catholicism was rapidly grow.
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Chapter 21: Slavery

Though Pope Gregory the 16th condemned the slave trade in 1839, Catholic leadership had little to say about slavery. In South, Catholics supported the legal institution of slavery. But none of Boston abolitions was Catholic and were actively have hostility to the Church. A number of Catholics fought on both sides. After Cold War, Catholic parishes and schools in both North and the South remained largely segregated by race until the middle years of the next century.
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