The Cardiovascular System~ Blood
By. Shelby Murray
- 55% Plasma
- 45% Formed Elements
How much blood is in our body?
- Males have 5-6 liters of blood
- Females have 4-5 liters of blood
Where is blood produced in the body?
- Red bone marrow produces the blood in our body
What controls the production of blood in the body?
- Hematopoietic stem cells, which are formed in blood marrow through the process of hematopoiesis, control the production of blood in the body
- Plasma is the fluid matrix of the blood
- It's made up of 90% water
- Thicker yellow solution, a mixture of: water, sugar, fat, protein and salts
What is the function of plasma and how does it help maintain homeostasis?
- Plasma helps maintain the blood flow which transports blood cells throughout the body, along with nutrients and waste. It also nourishes and protects tissues and organs. Plasma also distributes heat evenly throughout the body, and this process allows homeostasis to occur
- The plasma protein Albumin is important for controlling blood volume
- There are over 30 different kinds of proteins and some help create the immune system and allow clotting to occur
Why are people payed to donate plasma?
- Plasma is in high demand in the medical field, as plasma is needed for many patients. People need to be continuously donating.
- The procedure of plasma donation takes time (1 1/2 to 2 hours), and it takes commitment.
How does plasma donation work?
- During a plasma donation blood is drawn from one arm and sent through an automated machine. The machine collects plasma and other wanted components. Once the plasma is removed from the blood, the blood is circulated back into the person's body.
How is plasma separated from rest of the blood?
- The automated machine does the work of separating the plasma from the blood. The centrifuge of the machine spins the blood to separate the components, which vary by weight and density.
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
- Erythrocytes are biconcave disk shape and have no nucleus
- They are filled with hemoglobin and have a large surface area
- A red pigment called hemoglobin gives them their name
What is their function and how do they help maintain homeostasis?
- The large surface area provides for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the body's cells
- They transport the carbon dioxide to your lungs to be removed when you exhale
- Red blood cells maintain homeostasis by providing an adequate amount of oxygen to all of the organs and tissues of the body and by carrying nutrients and getting rid of waste in the body's bloodstream
- It is a test that measures the total blood volume made up by red blood cells
- Whole blood is placed in a tube and than spun down by the centrifuge. The heavier elements will settle to the bottom, and the lighter elements go to the top
- The test should have about 45% RBC's
- The test can show if you have problems with your blood composition
Importance of Hemoglobin's
- Hemoglobin's are the red pigments in the RBC's
- Hemoglobin's unite with oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin. This allows efficient transportation of large quantities of oxygen to body cells
- Hemoglobin's also carry a small portion of the CO2 carried by the blood which forms carbaminohemoglobin
- Measures the amount of hemoglobin in your blood
- With an incorrect amount of hemoglobin in your blood proper transfer of oxygen to the body's tissues and organs will not occur, and carbon dioxide would not get back to your lungs. This test will show if you have a blood condition such as anemia.
- Is the inability of the blood to carry sufficient amount of oxygen to the body cells. Their are a number of different conditions that can occur.
Iron Deficiency Anemia~
- Occurs when their is not enough iron in your diet and the body cannot produce enough hemoglobin's, as iron is a critical component of the hemoglobin molecule .
- A negative chain of reactions will occur: less hemoglobin, less oxygen being transported to cells, slower breakdown and use of nutrients by cells, less energy will be produced, and cellular function will decrease.
- Many people with iron deficiency will complain of always being tired
- Changes in your diet to include more iron rich foods
- Take iron supplement pills
- If the deficiency is coming from bleeding, you need to stop the bleeding, which may need surgery
- Is when red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the blood stream before their life span is over
- When blood cells die, the bone marrow makes new cells. However, when the cells die to fast the body is unable to produce the cells fast enough.
- Avoid suspect medications that may be attacking your RBC's
- In severe cases blood transfusions may occur
- Having the spleen removed can also be helpful
- Develops from a decrease in the number of RBC's caused by a hemorrhage resulting from excesses blood loss such as accidents or bleeding ulcers
- Immediately stop the source of the blood lose
- Restore blood volume through IV's
- Transfusion of new blood
Sickle Cell Anemia~
- Serve and potentially fatal hereditary disease caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin
- Red blood cells become crescent shape because of the genetic disorder
- The cells break down rapidly causing an insufficient amount of oxygen to reach the body's organs and tissues
- The cells can also get stuck in vessels resulting in pain
- This disorder normally affects African Americans
- Administration of oxygen, pain reviling pills and oral fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications
- Some doctors may suggest blood transfusions and bone marrow transplants
- Deficiency of RBC's that result from a failure of the stomach lining to produce "intrinsic factor" (the substance that allows vitamin B12 to be absorbed form the foods we eat). The body needs vitamin B12 to make RBC's
- Shots of Vitamin B12, supplements by mouth or supplements through the nose
- Eat a well balanced diet and have a life long surveillance
- This is a disorder of the red bone marrow. It causes too many red blood cells to be produced, and the production of white blood cells and platelets may also be increased.
- This disorder is caused from a genetic disorder, in gene number JAK2V617F. However the cause of the gene disorder is unknown.
- The goal of the treatment is to reduce the thickness of the blood and prevent bleeding and clotting
- Chemotherapy- to reduce the number of red blood cells produced in the bone marrow
- Phlebotomy- removal of blood until the number of RBC's decreas
- Take aspirin to reduce the risk of blood clotting
- Donating blood is a simple process
- The nurse will insert a sterile needle for the blood to be drawn. The blood donation bag will take 8-10 minutes to fill . When a pint of blood is collected the donation of blood is complete, and the nurse will bandage your arm.
- You can donate your whole blood every eight weeks or every 56 days
- The blood is used for critical injured patients, patients with need of blood transfusions, car crash victims and in and more cases
- Most red blood cells can be stored for 42 days after the donation process
- The one time donation of blood can help save 3 people's lives
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
- Round white cells, the Buffy Coat in the centrifuged blood
- Some have granules or absence of granules
- They are able to preform.....
- Phagocytosis~ the ability to eat foreign material and digest it
- Chemotaxis~ Cells being drawn to an area by chemical release
- Diapedesis~ movement of cells through the vessels and tissues
What is their function and how do they help maintain homeostasis?
They specialize in defending against foreign invaders
Leukocytes preform phagocytosis to eat the bacteria present in the body
The number of WBC increase when their is a infection ex. bacteria and parasites
They help maintain homeostasis by defending the body from foreign invaders (bacteria) and prevents the body from becoming sick
The Five Types of White Blood Cells
They are the most common types, 60% of the total
They have segmented nucleus, usually containing three lobes
Highly phagocytic, meaning they take the invading bacteria into their own cell bodies and digest the bacteria. This process protects the body from invading microorganisms.
Are present in acute infections ex. the flu and respiratory infections
Have a round nucleus
Help protect the body against infections (produce immunity)
They are non phagocytic, instead they fight viruses
Lymphocytes called B lymphocytes contain specialized proteins called antibodies which produce specialized proteins to destroy specific bacteria or viruses
Have a very long life span
Second most numerous with 31%
Conditions related to White Blood Cells
Low count of white blood cells in the blood stream
Caused by any disease/ disorder that will disrupt the function or production of cells in the bone marrow
An example is immunosuppressive drugs which temporary deletes the bodies WBC~ Glucocorticoids , chemotherapy, and radiation
Symptoms of headaches, oral blisters, liver abscesses and disturbed behavior
Stimulating the bone marrow to produce more WBC's
Eliminate toxins in the blood stream that may affect the production of WBC's
Put on medication to eliminate infections and may take supplements to ensure proper nutrition
Number of cancerous conditions of the bone marrow that affects the WBC's, causing an increase in inefficient WBCs
May be considered acute or chronic depending on how quickly the symptoms appear after disease begins
Also as lymphocytic or myeloid depending on the cells involved
More common in children than adults
Chemotherapy- uses drugs to kill the abnormal cells
Biological Therapy- used to support the immune system to fight off the cells
Radiation therapy and stem-cell transplants
Caused by Epstein Barr Virus aka. the kissing disease "mono"
Results in rise of WBC counts and may result in liver problems
Symptoms are fatigue, swollen tonsils, skin rashes, and fever
Theirs no specific treatment as mono is a virus
Doctors treat secondary infections Ex. take ibuprofen if you have a fever
Corticosteroids- ease some symptoms such as swollen tonsils
It's a cancer that affects the plasma cells
Plasma cells multiply and grow out of control, they crowd out healthy cells that keep the bones strong
Over time plasma cells "spill" out of their area and may destroy/damage other organs
The cancer destroys the body's immune system which may lead to anemia and kidney complications
Radiation, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplants
Steroid drugs- can help destroy the faulty plasma cells
What is their function and how do they help maintain homestasis?
They are responsible for initiating a clot (stoppage of blood)~ Platelet Plug
Form Prothrombin Activator- the platelets become sticky and accumulate at the open vessel
Characterized by multiple events... Vascular spasm, Platelet plug, and clotting cascade (also called coagulation)
They maintain homeostasis by allowing the cells to clot to seal broken blood vessel and stop the bleeding
Without platelets a simple injury may become fatal
Evants that occur during Homestais
1. Release of clotting factors from both injured cells and sticky platelets at the injury site
2. Series of chemical reactions (Prothrombin Activator) that eventually result in the formation of the thrombin
3. Formation of fibrin and trapping of RBC's to form a clot
~A scab would than form on the broken blood vessel~
Genetic disease were the blood doesn't clot because the blood lacks the clotting protein When a blood vessel breaks, you would bleed longer than normal clotting blood
Internal bleeding can damage your organs and tissues causing major complications
Minor cuts can become fatal
Treatments (Depends on the severity of the case)~
Injection of decompression to stimulate the blood clotting cells
Clotting factor removed from donated blood
Plasma infusions may be needed to stop the episodes
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