Periodic table

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Alkali Metals

Alkali metals are all located in the far left column under Hydrogen. Alkali metals are among the most reactive metals. They are characterized by their soft texture and silvery color. They also have low boiling and melting points and are less dense than most elements. Lithium and Sodium are examples of Alkali metal.

Alkaline Earth metals

The alkaline earth elements are metallic elements found to the right of alkali metals. All alkaline earth elements have an oxidation number of +2, making them very reactive. Because of their reactivity, the alkaline metals are not found free in nature. An example of an alkaline earth metal is Barium.


Halogens are found in the column second to the end on the periodic table. They exist in all there states of matter at room temperature and they all have 7 electrons in their outer shell. An example is Fluorine.

Noble Gases

They are found on the far right. They are the most stable of all the elements and very rarely react with other elements. They are also odorless and colorless. An example is helium.


They are located mostly on the left of the table. They are all solid except mercury and they conduct heat and electricity. An example is Mercury.


They go diagonally from Boron to Polonium. They carry an electrical charge under certain conditions so they are used a lot in semi conductors and computer chips. An example would be Arsenic.


Nonmetals are found in group 14-16 of the periodic table. They don't conduct electricity or heat very well and they are very brittle. An example is Carbon.

Transition Metals

They are found in group 3 through 12 of the periodic table. Transition metals are both ductile and malleable and they conduct electricity and heat. An example is Titanium.


Lanthanides are located in the top half of the lower section of the periodic table. They are relatively soft metals and are very reactive. An example is Cerium.


Actinides are in the row below Lanthanides. They are all radioactive due to instability and have a silvery or silvery-white luster in metallic form. An example is Thorium.

Periodic Trends

Ionization Energy

Ionization energy is the amount of energy that an isolated, gaseous atom in the ground electronic state must absorb to discharge an electron, resulting in a cation. As you move down a group, first ionization energy decreases. Electrons are further from the nucleus and thus easier to remove the outermost one. As you move across a period, first ionization energy increases.

Atomic Radius

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons. An atom gets larger as the number of electronic shells increase.


Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. As one moves from left to right across a period in the periodic table, the electronegativity increases due to the stronger attraction that the atoms obtain as the nuclear charge increases.