Freudian Perspectives

By: Kelsey Sanchez

Sigmund Freud

Scholar, Psychiatrist (1856–1939)

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist best known for developing the theories and techniques of psychoanalysis.

Defense Mechanisms

  • Repression- Forgetting one's lack of moral courage. EX: During the Oedipus complex aggressive thought about the same sex parents are repressed.
  • Denial- Failing to acknowledge external reality. EX: Smokers may refuse to admit that smoking is bad for them.
  • Projection- Transferring the responsibility to another person. EX: You might hate someone, but your superego tells you that such hatred is unacceptable. You can "solve" the problem by believing that they hate you.
  • Displacement- Satisfying an impulse with a substitute object. EX: Someone who is frustrated by his boss may go home and kick the dog.
  • Regression- Returning to a previous developmental stage when stressed. EX: A child may begin to suck their thumb again when they need to spend time in the hospital.
  • Sublimation- Satisfying and impulse in a socially acceptable way. EX: Someone who plays sports.

Psychosexual Development

  • Oral: (0-8 months) Mouth- Orally agressive or Orally passive
  • Anal: (18-36 months) Bowel and Bladder Elimination- Anal-retentive or Anal-expulsive
  • Phallic: (3-6 years) Genitals- Oedipus Complex or Electra Complex
  • Latency: (6-puberty) Dormant Sexual Feeling- People do not tend to fixate at this stage, but if they do, they tend to be extremely sexually unfulfilled.
  • Genital: (puberty and beyond) Sexual interest mature- Frigidity, impotence, unsatisfactory relationships

Id, Ego, Super Ego

  • Id- the part of the mind in which innate instinctive impulses and primary processes are manifest. EX: A hungry baby cried until he was fed
  • Ego- a person's sense of self-esteem or self-importance. EX: Even though Michael needed money, he decided not to steal the money from the cash register because he didn’t want to get in trouble.
  • Superego- the part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers. EX: Sarah knew that she could steal the supplies from work and no one would know about it. However, she knew that stealing was wrong, so she decided not to take anything even though she would probably never get caught.