Human Body systems project

Nervous System Created by: Michael Marbry

Function of the Nervous system

The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body’s electrical wiring.

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and the major parts

Central nervous system: The central nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves.


Peripheral nervous system: The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, ganglia (clusters of neurons) and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system.This system is the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.

The functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres,diencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum

Cerebral hemispheres: Nearly the entire surface is marked by elevated ridges called gyri (gyrus, singular) which are separated by grooves called sulci (sulcus, singular). The deepest of the grooves are called fissures. Median longitudinal fissure separates the hemispheres, and the transverse fissure separates the hemispheres from the cerebellum.


Diencephalon: This contains the Thalamus and the hypothalamus


THALAMUS - has many different nuclei, each of which has a functional specialty.

All sensory inputs ascending to the cerebral cortex are funneled through the thalamic nuclei. Sorting out and information editing process occurs. The thalamus plays a role in mediating: sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, memory. Gateway to the cerebral cortex

HYPOTHALAMUS - Named for its position below the thalamus. Caps the top of the brainstem. The infundibulum is a stalk of the hypothalamic tissue chat connects the pituitary gland to the base of the hypothalamus. Main visceral control center of the body.


Brain stem: Positioned between the cerebrum and the spinal cord. Centers produce the rigidly programmed, automatic behaviors necessary for our survival. Provides a pathway for fiber tracts running between higher and lower neural centers.


Cerebellum: Processes inputs received from the cerebral cortex, various brain stem nuclei, and sensory receptors. Provides precise timing, and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction needed for smooth, coordinated movements. Like an automatic pilot. It continually compares the higher brains intention with the body's actual perfomance and sends out messages to initiate the appropriate corrective actions. Helps promote smooth voluntary movements that are precise and economical in terms of muscular effort.

Disorders

Multiple Sclerosis (MS):the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the protective coating around the nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leaving scar tissue (sclerosis) in multiple areas (hence the name multiple sclerosis).


Symptoms: Numbness or weakness in the arms and legs, Blurred or double vision, or pain during eye movement, Partial or total vision loss, Pain or tingling in different areas of the body, Lack of coordination or unsteady walking, Tremors, Dizziness, Problems with bowel and bladder function, Extreme fatigue

Common: In the United Kingdom it occurs in approximately 1 in 800 people, affecting around 90,000 people, and in northern Europe approximately 1 in 1,000. In the US, there are between 250,000 and 350,000 people with MS, and it has been estimated that there are about 2.5 million people with MS worldwide. There is evidence that the disease is becoming more common.


Treatment: Treatments include medication, surgery, and therapy.


Alzheimer's disease: This is a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases.


Symptoms: memory loss, loss in speaking in writing, Depression, Anxiety, Social withdrawal, Mood swings, Distrust in others, Irritability and aggressiveness


Common: Almost everyone currently diagnosed with a mild form of Alzheimer's disease would be downgraded to not having the condition, if new proposed criteria for the diagnosis of cognitive problems were applied, a new study shows.


Treatment: Treatment includes Exercise, good nutrition, medication, and creating a stable environment.

,

Big image