Planet Earth

Aditya Jain

The Earth

The Earth is our planet. It is the third planet from the Sun. It is the densest planet in the Solar System. It is the largest of four terrestrial planets in the Solar System. Currently the only astronomical object known to support life. Currently home to 10-14 million species. The most dominant species, the human race, numbers at 7.2 billion people.

The Geological Layers of the Earth

0-60 km is the Lithosphere

0-35 km is the Crust

35-60 km is the Upper Mantle

35-2890 km is the Mantle

100-700 km is the Asthenosphere

2890-5100 km is the Outer Core

5100-6378 km is the Inner Core

The Lithosphere & The Asthenosphere

This is the solid outer part of the Earth. It contains the brittle upper portion of the mantle and the crust. It is about 100 km long. It is always moving. Broken into pieces called Tectonic Plates. Movement of plates causes major geological events.

The different plates of the Lithosphere float on a softer mantle layer called the Asthenosphere.

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The Crust

Outermost layer of the Earth. Divided into 15 major Tectonic Plates. Earth was a giant ball of molten rock, it cooled down and it hardened into the crust. It is made up of both oceanic and continental crusts. The oceanic crust is under the ocean and is made up of dense rocks. The continental crust is under land masses and is made up of less dense rocks.
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The Upper & Lower Mantle

It lies below the Asthenosphere. It is stronger and more solid than the Asthenosphere. All layers 670 km below the crust are actually part of the Upper Mantle.

The rest of the mantle between the Upper Mantle and the Outer Core is part of the Lower Mantle. It is denser and hotter than the Upper Mantle.

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The Outer & Inner Core

The Outer Core is mostly made of iron and nickel in the form of an alloy. It is approximately 2300 km thick. It is between 4000 and 5000 degrees celsius.

The Inner Core is mostly made of iron. It is approximately 1200 km thick. It is between 5000 and 7000 degrees celsius. The iron should melt but is solid due to the sheer pressure from the rest of the planet.

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The Chemical Composition of the Earth

The Earth mass is approximately 5.97x10^24 Kg. It is mostly composed of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), calcium (1.5%), aluminum (1.4%) and 1.2% other elements. 88.8% of the inner core is composed of solid iron due to mass segregation. Nearly 47% of Earth's crust is composed of oxygen.

The Earth's Atmosphere

0-12 km is the Troposphere

12-50 km is the Stratosphere

50-80 km is the Mesosphere

80-700 km is the Thermosphere

700-10000 km is the Exosphere